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mnfr1873-sup-0001-FigureS1.tif2613KSupporting Information Fig. 1. Effect of GSPE on skeletal muscle histopathology in normal and diabetic rats. Group a = vehicle-treated normal rats; group b = GSPE (250 mg/kg)-treated normal rats; group c = vehicle-treated diabetic rats; group d = GSPE (125 mg/kg)-treated diabetic rats; group e = GSPE (250 mg/kg)-treated diabetic rats; and group f = GSPE (500 mg/kg)-treated diabetic rats. Scale bar = 100 μm.
mnfr1873-sup-0002-FigureS2.tif5156KSupporting Information Fig. 2. Representative periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining in skeletal muscle samples of hind limb soleus muscles obtained from normal and diabetic rats (a1-f1). Serial sections were also stained with PAS after pretreatment with amylase to digest glycogen (negative control) (a2-f2). See Fig. 1 for groups and treatment. Scale bar = 100 μm.
mnfr1873-sup-0003-FigureS3.tif230KSupporting Information Fig. 3. Effect of GSPE on protein kinase B (PKB) activity in skeletal muscles of normal and diabetic rats. An aliquot of protein from skeletal muscle extracts was subject to western blot analysis using PKB and phospho-PKB (Ser473) antibodies. β-Actin protein levels were used as a control. The intensity of bands corresponding to phospho-PKB was corrected by PKB protein levels to obtain relative measures of PKB activity between samples. Results were means ± SEM of 3 determinations from 3 individual rats in each group. See Fig. 1 for groups and treatment. * P < 0.05 versus vehicle-treated normal rats, # P < 0.05 versus vehicle-treated diabetic rats.
mnfr1873-sup-0004-FigureS4.tif324KSupporting Information Fig. 4. Schematic diagram for GSPE-stimulated signal pathways in skeletal muscles of streptozotocin- and high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. Arrows and dashed lines indicated activation and repression of the following targets, respectively. CHOP, C/EBP homologous protein; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; GSH-PX, glutathione peroxidase; JNK, Jun N terminal kinase; MDA, malondialdehyde; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PKB, protein kinase B; T-SOD, total superoxide dismutase.
mnfr1873-sup-0005-S5.doc59KSupporting Information

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