• Anthocyanin;
  • Berry;
  • Diabetes;
  • Hydrolysable tannins;
  • Inflammation;
  • Proanthocyanidin


Berries are an excellent source of dietary flavonoids which have several health benefits.

Methods and results

We evaluated well-characterized anthocyanins (ANCs) and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from fermented blueberry–blackberry beverages. Wines were produced from highbush blueberries and blackberries grown in Illinois and blended to create ratios ranging from 100% blueberry to 100% blackberry. Total ANCs of the wine were strongly correlated to total phenolics (r = 0.99, p < 0.05) and to antioxidant capacity (r = 0.77, p < 0.05). ANC- and PAC-enriched fractions were purified from each wine blend and a phenolic profile was generated. ANCs increased with more blackberries from 1114 to 1550 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) equivalents/L. Hydrolysable tannins were identified in the PAC-enriched fraction. Both ANC- and PAC-enriched fractions inhibited starch-degrading enzyme α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity. Computational docking demonstrated that delphinidin-3-arabinoside effectively inactivated dipeptidyl peptidase-IV by binding with the lowest interaction energy (−3228 kcal/mol). ANC and PAC (100 μM C3G and epicatechin equivalents, respectively) from blueberry–blackberry blends reduced LPS-induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophages via the nuclear factor kappa B-mediated pathway.


ANC- and PAC- (including hydrolysable tannins in blackberry) enriched fractions from blueberry and blackberry fermented beverages are beneficial sources of antioxidants, inhibitors of carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes, and potential inhibitors of inflammation.