Serum concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl acids and their associations with diet and personal characteristics among Swedish adults
Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013
© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume 57, Issue 12, pages 2206–2215, December 2013
How to Cite
Bjermo, H., Darnerud, P. O., Pearson, M., Barbieri, H. E., Lindroos, A. K., Nälsén, C., Lindh, C. H., Jönsson, B. A. G. and Glynn, A. (2013), Serum concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl acids and their associations with diet and personal characteristics among Swedish adults. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 57: 2206–2215. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200845
- Issue published online: 4 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 5 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 20 DEC 2012
- Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
- Fish intake;
- Perfluorinated compounds;
In this study, food is suggested as a major source of human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA). We investigated relations between serum levels of PFAA in adults and diet/lifestyle factors nationwide in Sweden.
Methods and results
In 2010–2011, adults (18–80 years, N = 270) recorded their diet for 4 days and answered a food frequency questionnaire. PFAA were measured in blood serum as well as v-3 fatty acids in plasma phospholipids as a biomarker for fish consumption. Higher levels of PFAA were associated with male sex, increased age, and higher education. Women reporting full breastfeeding for ≥12 months had 32–44% lower levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonate than women who never nursed their infants full-time. Serum perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, and perfluoroundecanoic acid were positively related to n-3 fatty acids in plasma (partial r = 0.19–0.34, p ≤ 0.05).
The relatively strong correlations between biomarkers of fish consumption and certain PFAA suggest that PFAA exposure should be taken into account in health risk and benefit assessment of fish consumption. Breastfeeding appears to be a major source of elimination of certain PFAA among women, and consequently PFAA exposure of nursed infants could be significant.