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Table 1. Quantities (total μg) of main metabolites detected in the liver of lean Zucker female rats at different time points following an oral dose (∼100 mg dried extract) of a rosemary extract (RE) enriched in carnosic acid (∼40 % w/w).

Table 2. Quantities (total μg) of main metabolites detected in the gut of lean Zucker female rats at different time points following an oral dose (∼100 mg dried extract) of a rosemary extract (RE) enriched in carnosic acid (∼40 % w/w).

Table 3. Concentration (μM) of main metabolites detected in the plasma of lean Zucker female rats at different time points following an oral dose (∼100 mg dried extract) of a rosemary extract (RE) enriched in carnosic acid (∼40 % w/w).

Figure 1. Main fragments detected for carnosic acid and its main derived metabolites. Loss of the carboxylic group (-COOH), hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH3) and (or) conjugation molecule (glucuronide, sulphate or glutathione) are indicated.

Figure 2. Small intestine content samples before (A) and after (B) incubation with β-glucuronidase (Type H-2 from Helix pomatia, 100400 U/mL; Sigma). The pH of the tissue sample was adjusted to pH=5.0 (NaOH) and incubated with 20 μL of the enzyme for 2 h at 37 ºC. Samples were filtered (0.45 μm) and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS. Treatment with the glucuronidase resulted in the disappearance of the glucuronide peaks and appearance of the respectibe aglycones.

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