• d-mannose;
  • Food allergy;
  • Glucomannan;
  • Glycation;
  • Immune modulation


Glycation of allergens via Maillard reaction or chemical conjugation has been shown to influence susceptibility to food-induced allergies. It is hypothesized that mucosal immune response bias can be favorably altered by orally administering various forms of glycated ovalbumin (OVA).

Methods and results

Groups of Balb/c mice (n = 10) were orally sensitized to OVA and administered various forms of glycated OVA (glucose, mannose, glucomannan, galactomannan, and a mixture containing OVA and glucomannan). Outcomes post oral challenge were measured as clinical allergic signs, serum histamine, mouse mast cell protease 1 (MMCP-1), antibody activity, type-1/2 cytokines, percentage of T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and in vitro dendritic cell, and T-cell-related mechanisms. Clinical signs and specific IgE were decreased (p ≤ 0.05), and T-reg cell percentage was increased in the mannose and glucomannan treated groups. The OVA-mannose group also had less histamine, MMCP-1, specific IgG, IL-4 and IL-17, and more IL-12p70 (p ≤ 0.05). Other parameters measured did not differ significantly among groups. Also, OVA-glycated mannose reduced maturation and uptake by dendritic cells. Less activation of T cells and type-2 cytokine response in DC–T-cell cocultures were observed with OVA-glycated mannose stimulation.


This study validates, for the first time, the use of OVA-glycated mannose and glucomannan for potential beneficial dietary interventions for allergy.