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5-Demethyltangeretin inhibits human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell growth by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

Authors


Abstract

Scope

Tangeretin (TAN) and 5-demethyltangeretin (5DT) are two closely related polymethoxyflavones found in citrus fruits. We investigated growth inhibitory effects on three human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

Methods and results

Cell viability assay demonstrated that 5DT inhibited NSCLC cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and IC50s of 5DT were 79-fold, 57-fold, and 56-fold lower than those of TAN in A549, H460, and H1299 cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 5DT induced extensive G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NSCLC cells, while TAN at tenfold higher concentrations did not. The apoptosis induced by 5DT was further confirmed by activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. Moreover, 5DT dose-dependently upregulated p53 and p21Cip1/Waf1, and downregulated Cdc-2 (Cdk-1) and cyclin B1. HPLC analysis revealed that the intracellular levels of 5DT in NSCLC cells were 2.7–4.9 fold higher than those of TAN after the cells were treated with 5DT or TAN at the same concentration.

Conclusion

Our results demonstrated that 5DT inhibited NSCLC cell growth by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These effects were much stronger than those produced by TAN, which is partially due to the higher intracellular uptake of 5DT than TAN.

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