Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages
Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013
© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume 57, Issue 12, pages 2155–2165, December 2013
How to Cite
Lin, S., Hirai, S., Yamaguchi, Y., Goto, T., Takahashi, N., Tani, F., Mutoh, C., Sakurai, T., Murakami, S., Yu, R. and Kawada, T. (2013), Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 57: 2155–2165. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201300150
- Issue published online: 4 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 16 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 25 FEB 2013
- Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology of Japan. Grant Numbers: 22228001, 22380075
- Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from The Japan Science Society
- Science Research Center. Grant Number: 2012-0000643
- Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
- Adipose tissue;
- Insulin resistance;
- Macrophage phenotypes;
It is increasingly accepted that chronic inflammation is a feature of obesity. Obesity-induced inflammation triggers enhanced recruitment of macrophages into the adipose tissue. Depending on their phenotype, macrophages can be designated either as pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We have therefore investigated the effects of taurine, a sulfated amino acid that is abundant in seafood, on obesity-related inflammation.
Methods and results
In high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice, taurine treatment reduced the infiltration of macrophages and promoted an M2-like phenotype of macrophages in adipose tissues. In addition, taurine decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines, and suppressed the development of hyperglycemia in diet-induced obese mice. Moreover, in vitro experiments that involved bone marrow derived macrophages indicated that taurine treatment induced alternative M2 macrophage activation, and its chloride, taurine chloramines, inhibited classical M1 macrophage activation.
Our findings indicate that taurine treatment attenuates the infiltration of adipose tissue by macrophages and modulates the phenotype of macrophages, which suggest that taurine is a valuable food constituent with a potential to attenuate chronic inflammation in adipose tissue and improve obesity-related insulin resistance.