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Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages

Authors

  • Shan Lin,

    1. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Shizuka Hirai,

    1. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Yuko Yamaguchi,

    1. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Tsuyoshi Goto,

    1. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
    2. Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Nobuyuki Takahashi,

    1. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
    2. Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Fumito Tani,

    1. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Food Environmental Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Chikako Mutoh,

    1. Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Takanobu Sakurai,

    1. Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Shigeru Murakami,

    1. Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Rina Yu,

    1. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
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  • Teruo Kawada

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
    2. Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
    • Correspondence: Dr. Teruo Kawada, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011, Japan

      E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

      Fax: +81-774-38-3852

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Abstract

Scope

It is increasingly accepted that chronic inflammation is a feature of obesity. Obesity-induced inflammation triggers enhanced recruitment of macrophages into the adipose tissue. Depending on their phenotype, macrophages can be designated either as pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We have therefore investigated the effects of taurine, a sulfated amino acid that is abundant in seafood, on obesity-related inflammation.

Methods and results

In high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice, taurine treatment reduced the infiltration of macrophages and promoted an M2-like phenotype of macrophages in adipose tissues. In addition, taurine decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines, and suppressed the development of hyperglycemia in diet-induced obese mice. Moreover, in vitro experiments that involved bone marrow derived macrophages indicated that taurine treatment induced alternative M2 macrophage activation, and its chloride, taurine chloramines, inhibited classical M1 macrophage activation.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that taurine treatment attenuates the infiltration of adipose tissue by macrophages and modulates the phenotype of macrophages, which suggest that taurine is a valuable food constituent with a potential to attenuate chronic inflammation in adipose tissue and improve obesity-related insulin resistance.

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