Activation of autophagy and AMPK by gamma-tocotrienol suppresses the adipogenesis in human adipose derived stem cells
Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013
© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume 58, Issue 3, pages 569–579, March 2014
How to Cite
Zhao, L., Ha, J.-H., Okla, M. and Chung, S. (2014), Activation of autophagy and AMPK by gamma-tocotrienol suppresses the adipogenesis in human adipose derived stem cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 58: 569–579. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201300157
- Issue published online: 4 MAR 2014
- Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 24 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Received: 28 FEB 2013
- American Heart Association SDG. Grant Number: 13SDG14410043
- AMP kinase;
This study investigated the mechanistic details by which gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3) manipulates adipocyte differentiation in human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs).
Methods and results
γ-T3 specifically inhibited the early stage of adipocyte differentiation by acting on downstream of C/EBP-β but upstream of C/EBP-α in hASCs. In searching a potential mechanism, we identified that γ-T3 promoted two catabolic signaling pathways: (i) AMP kinase (AMPK), and (ii) enhanced autophagy, as assessed by autophagic flux and cytosolic autophagosome (LC3II) accumulation. In addition, chronic exposure of γ-T3 induced caspase3-mediated apoptotic cell death. The blockage of AMPK by a dominant negative mutant of AMPK was insufficient to normalize γ-T3-mediated autophagy, suggesting that enhanced autophagic activity of γ-T3 is independent of AMPK activation. Intriguingly, AMPK inhibition significantly restored PPAR-γ activation, but marginally rescued lipid-loaded adipocyte morphology due to, at least partly, a lack of lipid droplet-coating protein. These data suggest that γ-T3 activates AMPK and autophagy signaling, which synergistically contributes to the suppression of adipogenic conversion of hASCs into adipocytes.
These results provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanism involved in anti-adipogenic action of γ-T3 in humans via AMPK and autophagy activation. Thus, γ-T3 may constitute a new dietary avenue to attenuate hyperplastic obesity in humans.