5 References

  • 1
    Cassidy, A., O'Reilly, É. J., Kay, C., Sampson, L. et al., Habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses and incident hypertension in adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2011, 93, 338347.
  • 2
    Mink, P. J., Scrafford, C. G., Barraj, L. M., Harnack, L. et al., Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 85, 895909.
  • 3
    Cassidy, A., Mukamal, K. J., Liu, L., Franz, M. et al., High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women. Circulation 2013, 127, 188196.
  • 4
    Xu, J.-W., Ikeda, K., Yamori, Y., Cyanidin-3-glucoside regulates phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. FEBS Lett. 2004, 574, 176180.
  • 5
    Edirisinghe, I., Banaszewski, K., Cappozzo, J., McCarthy, D. et al., Effect of black currant anthocyanins on the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in vitro in human endothelial cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011, 59, 86168624.
  • 6
    Manach, C., Williamson, G., Morand, C., Scalbert, A. et al., Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005, 81, 230S242S.
  • 7
    Williamson, G., Manach, C., Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005, 81, 243S255S.
  • 8
    Kay, C. D., Mazza, G. J., Holub, B. J., Anthocyanins exist in the circulation primarily as metabolites in adult men. J. Nutr. 2005, 135, 25822588.
  • 9
    Kay, C. D., The future of flavonoid research. Br. J. Nutr. 2010, 104, S91S95.
  • 10
    Gonzalez-Barrio, R., Christine, E., Crozier, A., Colonic catabolism of ellagitannins, ellagic acid and raspberry anthocyanins: in vivo and in vitro studies. Drug Metab. Dispos. 2011, 39, 16801688.
  • 11
    Williamson, G., Clifford, M. N., Colonic metabolites of berry polyphenols: the missing link to biological activity? Br. J. Nutr. 2010, 104(Suppl 3), S48S66.
  • 12
    Vitaglione, P., Donnarumma, G., Napolitano, A., Galvano, F. et al., Protocatechuic acid is the major human metabolite of cyanidin-glucosides. J. Nutr. 2007, 137, 20432048.
  • 13
    Nurmi, T., Mursu, J., Heinonen, M., Nurmi, A. et al., Metabolism of berry anthocyanins to phenolic acids in humans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57, 22742281.
  • 14
    Russell, W. R., Scobbie, L., Labat, A., Duthie, G. G., Selective bio-availability of phenolic acids from Scottish strawberries. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2009, 53, S85S91.
  • 15
    Zhang, K., Zuo, Y., GC-MS determination of flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic acids in human plasma after consumption of cranberry juice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 222227.
  • 16
    Valentova, K., Stejskal, D., Bednar, P., Vostalova, J. et al., Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007, 55, 32173224.
  • 17
    Koli, R., Erlund, I., Jula, A., Marniemi, J. et al., Bioavailability of various polyphenols from a diet containing moderate amounts of berries. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 39273932.
  • 18
    Czank, C., Cassidy, A., Zhang, Q., Morrison, D. J. et al., Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a 13C-tracer study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013, 97, 9951003.
  • 19
    Curtis, P. J., Kroon, P. A., Hollands, W. J., Walls, R. et al., Cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers and liver and kidney function are not altered in postmenopausal women after ingesting an elderberry extract rich in anthocyanins for 12 weeks. J. Nutr. 2009, 139, 22662271.
  • 20
    Zhang, Q., Raheem, K. S., Botting, N. P., Slawin, A. M. Z. et al., Flavonoid metabolism: the synthesis of phenolic glucuronides and sulfates as candidate metabolites for bioactivity studies of dietary flavonoids. Tetrahedron 2012, 68, 41944201.
  • 21
    Neveu, V., Perez-Jiménez, J., Vos, F., Crespy, V. et al., Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database 2010, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024.
  • 22
    Veberic, R., Jakopic, J., Stampar, F., Schmitzer, V., European elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) rich in sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and selected polyphenols. Food Chem. 2009, 114, 511515.
  • 23
    Saxholt, E., Christensen, A. T., Møller, A., Hartkopp, H. B. et al., Danish Food Composition Databank, revision 7. Department of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. 2008. Available at
  • 24
    Wu, X., Cao, G., Prior, R. L., Absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins in elderly women after consumption of elderberry or blueberry. J. Nutr. 2002, 132, 18651871.
  • 25
    Milbury, P. E., Cao, G., Prior, R. L., Blumberg, J., Bioavailablility of elderberry anthocyanins. Mech. Ageing Dev. 2002, 123, 9971006.
  • 26
    Mülleder, U., Murkovic, M., Pfannhauser, W., Urinary excretion of cyanidin glycosides. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 2002, 53, 6166.
  • 27
    Murkovic, M., Mülleder, U., Adam, U., Pfannhauser, W., Detection of anthocyanins from elderberry juice in human urine. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2001, 81, 934937.
  • 28
    Kay, C. D., Mazza, G., Holub, B. J., Wang, J., Anthocyanin metabolites in human urine and serum. Br. J. Nutr. 2004, 91, 933942.
  • 29
    Felgines, C., Talavera, S., Texier, O., Gil-Izquierdo, A. et al., Blackberry anthocyanins are mainly recovered from urine as methylated and glucuronidated conjugates in humans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53, 77217727.
  • 30
    Garcia-Alonso, M., Minihane, A.-M., Rimbach, G., Rivas-Gonzalo, J. C. et al., Red wine anthocyanins are rapidly absorbed in humans and affect monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels and antioxidant capacity of plasma. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2009, 20, 521529.
  • 31
    Bitsch, R., Netzel, M., Sonntag, S., Strass, G. et al., Urinary excretion of cyanidin glucosides and glucuronides in healthy humans after elderberry juice ingestion. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2004, 2004, 343345.
  • 32
    Cao, G., Muccitelli, H. U., Sánchez-Moreno, C., Prior, R. L., Anthocyanins are absorbed in glycated forms in elderly women: a pharmacokinetic study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2001, 73, 920926.
  • 33
    Azzini, E., Vitaglione, P., Intorre, F., Napolitano, A. et al., Bioavailability of strawberry antioxidants in human subjects. Br. J. Nutr. 2010, 104, 11651173.
  • 34
    Selma, M. V., Espín, J. C., Tomás-Barberán, F. A., Interaction between phenolics and gut microbiota: role in human health. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57, 64856501.
  • 35
    Winter, J., Moore, L., Dowell, V., Bokkenheuser, V., C-ring cleavage of flavonoids by human intestinal bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1989, 55, 12031208.
  • 36
    Aura, A. M., O'Leary, K. A., Williamson, G., Ojala, M. et al., Quercetin derivatives are deconjugated and converted to hydroxyphenylacetic acids but not methylated by human fecal flora in vitro. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 17251730.
  • 37
    Griffiths, L., Barrow, A., Metabolism of flavonoid compounds in germ-free rats. Biochem. J. 1972, 130, 11611162.
  • 38
    Mullen, W., Rouanet, J. M., Auger, C., Teissedre, P. L. et al., Bioavailability of [2-(14)C]quercetin-4’-glucoside in rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 1212712137.
  • 39
    Berg, R. D., The indigenous gastrointestinal microflora. Trends Microbiol. 1996, 4, 430435.
  • 40
    Hollman, P. C. H., Absorption, bioavailability, and metabolism of flavonoids. Pharm. Biol. 2004, 42, 7483.
  • 41
    Toromanović, J., Kovač-Bešović, E., Šapčanin, A., Tahirović, I. et al., Urinary hippuric acid after ingestion of edible fruits. Bosnian J. Basic Med. Sci. 2008, 8, 3843.
  • 42
    Egert, S., Wolffram, S., Bosy-Westphal, A., Boesch-Saadatmandi, C. et al., Daily quercetin supplementation dose-dependently increases plasma quercetin concentrations in healthy humans. J. Nutr. 2008, 138, 16151621.
  • 43
    Schmitzer, V., Veberic, R., Slatnar, A., Stampar, F., Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) wine: a product rich in health promoting compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 1014310146.
  • 44
    Dykes, L., Rooney, L. W., Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Foods World. 2007, 52, 105111.
  • 45
    Del Rio, D., Rodriguez-Mateos, A., Spencer, J. P., Tognolini, M. et al., Dietary (poly) phenolics in human health: structures, bioavailability, and evidence of protective effects against chronic diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2013, 18, 18181892.
  • 46
    Weber, J., Van Zanten, A., Interferences in current methods for measurements of creatinine. Clin. Chem. 1991, 37, 695700.
  • 47
    Fossen, T., Cabrita, L., Andersen, O. M., Colour and stability of pure anthocyanins influenced by pH including the alkaline region. Food Chem. 1998, 63, 435440.