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Table S1. Specimens. From a total of ten patients, five were male and five were female. Patients were between 30 and 77 years of age (53 ± 15). When split into sub-categories, five resectates were used as controls, four resectates were analyzed as IBD.

Figure S1. Liposome formation, Nile red staining and controls for uptake of liposomes into HT-29.

Figure S2. Uptake of Nile red-stained sphingomyelin in HT-29.

Figure S3. The number of apoptotic cells increased in response to sphingomyelin and decreased due to phosphatidylcholine in a dose-dependent manner.

Figure S4. Sphingomyelin induced apoptosis in isolated human colonic crypts, whereas phosphatidylcholine prevented cell death.

Figure S5. aSMase, alkSMase and nSMase activity in colonic or jejunal murine tissue.

Figure S6. Relative Bid mRNA expression related to GAPDH.

Figure S7. Bid is activated to tBid in response to applied sphingomyelin and/or DSS treatment in murine IEC. Western blot showing activation of BID to tBID.

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