In vitro transformation of chlorogenic acid by human gut microbiota
Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013
© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Volume 58, Issue 5, pages 1122–1131, May 2014
How to Cite
Tomas-Barberan, F., García-Villalba, R., Quartieri, A., Raimondi, S., Amaretti, A., Leonardi, A. and Rossi, M. (2014), In vitro transformation of chlorogenic acid by human gut microbiota. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 58: 1122–1131. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201300441
- Issue published online: 22 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 10 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Received: 18 JUN 2013
- European Union
- Chlorogenic acid;
- Intestinal microbiota;
Chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid, C-QA), the caffeic ester of quinic acid, is one of the most abundant phenolic acids in Western diet. The majority of C-QA escapes absorption in the small intestine and reaches the colon, where the resident microbiota transforms it into several metabolites. C-QA conversion by the gut microbiota from nine subjects was compared to evaluate the variability of bacterial metabolism. It was investigated whether a potentially probiotic Bifidobacterium strain, capable of C-QA hydrolysis, could affect C-QA fate.
Methods and results
Bioconversion experiments exploiting the microbiota from diverse subjects revealed that C-QA was metabolized through a succession of hydrogenation, dexydroxylation and ester hydrolysis, occurring in different order among the subjects. Transformation may proceed also through quinic acid residue breakdown, since caffeoyl-glycerol intermediates were identified (HPLC-MS/MS, Q-TOF). All the pathways converged on 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, which was transformed to hydroxyphenyl-ethanol and/or phenylacetic acid in few subjects. A strain of Bifidobacterium animalis able to hydrolyze C-QA was added to microbiota cultures. It affected microbial composition but not to such an extent that C-QA metabolism was modified.
A picture of the variability of microbiota C-QA transformations among subjects is provided. The transformation route through caffeoyl-glycerol intermediates is described for the first time.