• Diallyl sulfide;
  • Histamine;
  • Inflammation;
  • Nrf2;
  • TNF-α


Oxidative stress-aggravated chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway are well documented; hence, treatment with antioxidants to ameliorate oxidative stress might be an effective strategy to reduce airway complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of diallyl sulfide (DAS), which is a natural organosulfuric compound found in garlic, on the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)- or histamine-induced inflammation in rat aortic smooth muscle A7r5 cells.

Methods and results

A7r5 cells were coincubated with DAS before exposure to TNF-α or histamine. DAS significantly blocked the accumulation of the nuclear p65 protein in TNF-α-induced A7r5 cells by attenuating the TNF-α receptor complex through the dissociation of the TNF receptor-associated death domain and TNF receptor-associated factor 2. Moreover, DAS inhibited histamine-induced inflammation by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by enhancing the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2-related antioxidative enzyme. DAS also inhibited inflammation by suppressing interleukin-1β and TNF-α through the inhibition of ROS-induced PI3K/Akt and the downstream NF-κB and activator protein-1.


Our results demonstrate that DAS is a potential phytochemical to inhibit TNF-α- and histamine-induced inflammation, suggesting that DAS might be an effective dietary agent for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced inflammation of the airway.