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Extrusion improved the anti-inflammatory effect of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) hydrolysates in LPS-induced human THP-1 macrophage-like and mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling

Authors

  • Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez,

    1. Programa Regional del Noroeste para el Doctorado en Biotecnología, FCQB-UAS, Ciudad Universitaria, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México
    2. Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA
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  • Elvira González de Mejía,

    1. Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA
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  • Vermont P. Dia,

    1. Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA
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  • Cuauhtémoc Reyes-Moreno,

    1. Programa Regional del Noroeste para el Doctorado en Biotecnología, FCQB-UAS, Ciudad Universitaria, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México
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  • Jorge Milán-Carrillo

    Corresponding author
    1. Programa Regional del Noroeste para el Doctorado en Biotecnología, FCQB-UAS, Ciudad Universitaria, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México
    • Correspondence: Dr. Jorge Milán-Carrillo, Circuito Villa Castellón 3836, Col Villas del Rio Elite, CP 80054 Culiacán, Sinaloa, México

      E-mail: jmilanc@gmail.com

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Abstract

Scope

The objective was to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of unprocessed and extruded amaranth pepsin/pancreatin hydrolysates in LPS-induced human THP-1 macrophages-like and mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages focusing on their anti-inflammatory mechanism of action related to NF-κB signaling pathway.

Methods and results

Amaranth hydrolysates were characterized by MS-MS and tested for anti-inflammatory effects on human and mouse macrophages. Peptides found in extruded amaranth hydrolysates displayed antioxidant capacity, angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor activity, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor activity. Gly-Pro-Arg peptide was present and reported as antithrombotic. Extruded amaranth hydrolysates (1 mg/mL) significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion in THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells by 36.5 and 33.5%, respectively; with concomitant reduction in PGE2 (15.4 and 31.4%), and COX-2 (38.1 and 67.6%), respectively. Phosphorylation of IKK-α was significantly reduced by 52.5 and 88.2% leading to reduced phosphorylation of IκB-α (86.1 and 66.2%), respectively; resulting in a reduction in the expression of p65 NF-κB subunits in the nucleus by 64.2% for THP-1 and 70.7% for RAW 264.7 cells.

Conclusion

Amaranth hydrolysates inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in human and mouse macrophages by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling. Extrusion improved anti-inflammatory effect of amaranth hydrolysates in both cells, which might be attributed to the production of bioactive peptides during processing.

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