Dietary α-mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, exacerbates experimental colitis and promotes dysbiosis in mice
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. α-Mangostin (α-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, exerts anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in vitro. We evaluated the impact of dietary α-MG on murine experimental colitis and on the gut microbiota of healthy mice.
Methods and results
Colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Mice were fed control diet or diet with α-MG (0.1%). α-MG exacerbated the pathology of DSS-induced colitis. Mice fed diet with α-MG had greater colonic inflammation and injury, as well as greater infiltration of CD3+ and F4/80+ cells, and colonic myeloperoxidase, than controls. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-6, and serum amyloid A were also greater in α-MG-fed animals than in controls. The colonic and cecal microbiota of healthy mice fed α-MG but no DSS shifted to an increased abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, a profile similar to that found in human UC.
α-MG exacerbated colonic pathology during DSS-induced colitis. These effects may be associated with an induction of intestinal dysbiosis by α-MG. Our results suggest that the use of α-MG-containing supplements by patients with UC may have unintentional risk.