• left-handed transmission lines;
  • left-handed lumped equivalent circuits;
  • left-handed transmission line behavior on Smith chart;
  • left-handed small impedance transformers;
  • left-handed CVTs (LHCVTs)


Based on the concept that a left-handed transmission line section has a negative electrical length, two Π-type lumped equivalent circuits are presented, and it is newly suggested that a low-pass filter type can be its lumped-equivalent circuit under a certain condition. Applying the negative electrical length concept to Smith chart, left-handed small impedance transformers are derived and two are validated by measurements, adding 180° right-handed transmission lines to the impedance transformers. The measured results are in good agreements with predictions, showing that insertion and return losses are −0.23 and −22.5 dB, respectively. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 50: 2269–2271, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( 10.1002/mop.23676