• 1
    Gjerris F, Agerlin N, Børgesen SE, et al. Epidemiology and prognosis in children treated for intracranial tumours in Denmark 1960–1984. Child's Nerv Syst 1998; 14: 302311.
  • 2
    Pollack IF. Brain tumors in children. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 15001507.
  • 3
    Ellenberg L, McComb JG, Siegel SE, et al. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients. Neurosurgery 1987; 21: 638644.
  • 4
    Dennis M, Hetherngton CR, Spiegler BJ. Memory and attention after childhood brain tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol Suppl 1998; 1: 2533.
  • 5
    Moore BD III, Alter JL, Coprerland DR. Improved neuropsychological outcome in children with brain tumors diagnoses during infancy and treated without cranial irradiation. J Child Neurol 1992; 7: 281290.
  • 6
    Mulhern RK, Hancock J, Fairclough D, et al. Neuropsychological status of children treated for brain tumors: A critical review and integrative analysis. Med Pediatr Oncol 1992; 20: 181191.
  • 7
    Silber JH, Radcliffe J, Peckham V, et al. Whole brain irradiation and decline in intelligence: The influence of dose and age on IQ score. J Clin Oncol 1992; 10: 13901396.
  • 8
    Copeland DR, deMoor C, Moore BD III, et al. Neurocognitive development of children after a cerebellar tumor in infancy: A longitudinal study. J Clin Oncol 1999; 20: 181191.
  • 9
    Lannering B, Marky I, Lundberg A, et al. Long term sequelae after pediatric brain tumors—Their effect on disability and quality of life. Med Pediatr Oncol 1990; 18: 304310.
  • 10
    Riva D, Milani N, Pantaleoni C, et al. Combined treatment modality for medulloblastoma in children: Effects on neuropsychological functioning. Neuropediatrics 1991; 22: 3642.
  • 11
    Mulhern RK, Kun LE. Neuropsychologic function in children with brain tumors: III. Interval changes in the six months following treatment. Med Pediatr Oncol 1985; 13: 318324.
  • 12
    Duffner PK, Cohen ME, Parker MS. Prospective intellectual testing in children with brain tumors. Ann Neurol 1988; 23: 575579.
  • 13
    Grill J, Renaux VK, Bulteau C, et al. Long-term intellectual outcome in children with posterior fossa tumors according to radiation doses and volumes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999; 45: 137145.
  • 14
    Ilveskoski I, Pihko H, Lamminrata S, et al. Neuropsychologic late effects in children with malignant brain tumors treated with surgery, radiotherapy and “8 in 1” chemotherapy. Neuropediatrics 1996; 27: 124129.
  • 15
    Giovagnoli AR, Boiardi A. Cognitive impairment and quality of life in long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors. Ital J Neurol Sci 1994; 15: 481488.
  • 16
    Chadderton RD, West CGH, Schulz S, et al. Radiotherapy in treatment of low-grade astrocytomas. II. The physical and cognitive sequelae. Child Nerv Syst 1995; 11: 443448.
  • 17
    García-Pérez A, Sierrasesumgaga L, Nabona-García J, et al. Neuropsychological evaluation of children with intercranial tumors: Impact of treatment modalities. Med Pediatr Oncol 1994; 23: 116123.
  • 18
    Packer RJ, Sutton LN, Atkins TE, et al. A prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-years results. J Neurosurg 1989; 70: 707713.
  • 19
    Schmugge E, Bolthauser E, Plüss HJ, et al. Long-term follow-up and residual sequelae after treatment for intracerebral germ-cell tumors in children and adolescents. Ann Oncol 2000; 11: 527533.
  • 20
    Danoff BF, Cowchock S, Marquette C, et al. Assessment of the long-term effects of primary radiation therapy for brain tumors in children. Cancer 1982; 49: 15821586.
  • 21
    Jannoun L, Bloom HJG. Long-term psychological effects in children treated for intracranial tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1990; 18: 747753.
  • 22
    Radcliffe J, Bunin GR, Sutton LN, et al. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood medulloblastoma and other noncortical tumors: Age-dependent effects of whole brain radiation. Int J Dev Neurosci 1994; 12: 327334.
  • 23
    Dennis M, Spiegler BJ, Obonsawin MC, et al. Brain tumors in children and adolescents—III. Effects of radiation and hormone status on intelligence and on working, associative and serial-order memory. Neuropsychologia 1992; 30: 257275.
  • 24
    Chapman CA, Waber DP, Bernstein JH, et al. Neurobehavioral and neurologic outcome in long-term suvivors of posterior fossa brain tumors: Role of age and perioperative factors. J Child Neurol 1995; 10: 209212.
  • 25
    Parker RJ, Sposto R, Atkins TE, et al. Quality of life in children with primitive neuroectodernal tumors (medulloblastoma) of the posterior fossa. Pediatr Neurosci 1987; 13: 169175.
  • 26
    Eiser C. Psychological sequelae of brain tumors in childhood: A retrospective study. Br J Clin Psychol 1981; 20: 3538.
  • 27
    Brookshire B, Copeland DR, Moore BD, et al. Pretreatment neuropsychological status and associated factors in children with primary brain tumors. Neurosurgery 1990; 27: 887891.
  • 28
    Ater JL, Moore BD III, Francis DJ, et al. Correlation of medical and neurosurgical events with neuropsychological status in children at diagnosis of astrocytoma: Utilization of a neurological severity score. J Child Neurol 1996; 11: 462469.
  • 29
    Riva D, Giorgi C. The cerebellum contributes to higher functions during development. Evidence from a series of children surgically treated for posterior fossa tumours. Brain 2000; 123: 10511061.
  • 30
    Kun L, Mulhern RK. Neuropsychologic function in children with brain tumors: II. Serial studies of intellect and time after treatment. Am J Clin Oncol 1983; 6: 651656.
  • 31
    Roman DD, Sperduto PW. Neuropsychological effects of cranial radiation: Current knowledge and future directions. Int Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995; 31: 983998.
  • 32
    Gamis AS, Nesbit M. Neuropsychologic (cognitive) disabilities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatrician 1991; 18: 1119.
  • 33
    Glauser TA, Packer RJ. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors. Child Nerv Syst 1991; 7: 212.
  • 34
    Ris MD, Noll RB. Long-term neurobehavioral outcome in pediatric brain-tumor patients: Review and methodological critique. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1994; 16: 021042.
  • 35
    Barendsen GW. Dose fractionation, dose rate and iso-effect relationships for normal tissue responses. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1982; 8: 19811997.
  • 36
    Fowler JF. The linear-quadratic formula and progress in fractionated radiotherapy. Br J Radiol 1989; 62: 679694.
  • 37
    Joiner MC. The linear-quadratic approach to fractionation. In: SteelGG, editor. Basic clinical radiobiology. 2nd edition. London: Edward Arnold Publishers; 1995. p 5564.
  • 38
    De Nully Brown P, Hertz H, Olsen JH, et al. Incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark 1943–1984. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: 546555.
  • 39
    Kleihues P, Burger PC, Scheithauer BW. The new WHO classification of brain tumors. Brain Pathol 1993; 3: 255268.
  • 40
    Schmiegelow M, Lassen S, Poulsen HS, et al. Cranial radiotherapy of childhood brain tumors: Growth hormone deficiency and its relation to the biological effective dose of irradiation in a large population based study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000; 53: 191197.
  • 41
    Tait DM, Thornton-Jones H, Bloom HJ, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for medulloblastoma: The first multi-centre control trial of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP I). Eur J Cancer 1990; 26: 464469.
  • 42
    Bailey CC, Gnekow A, Wellek S, et al. Prospective randomised trial of chemotherapy given before radiotherapy in childhood medulloblastoma. International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) and the (German) Society of Paediatric Oncology (CPO): SIOP II. Med Pediatr Oncol 1995; 25: 166178.
  • 43
    Bailey CC, Imeson J, Robinson K. Randomised clinical trial of pre radiotherapy chemotherapy vs. radiotherapy alone for medulloblastoma (PNET III). Med Pediatr Oncol 1997; 29: 322 (Abstract).
  • 44
    Wechsler D. Intelligence scale for children—Revised manual. Norsk Psykologforening. Adaption and translation copyright by the Psychological Corporation USA 1974.
  • 45
    Wechsler D. Wechsler adult intelligence scale—Revised manual. Dansk Psykologisk Forlag. Danish translation copyright by the Psychological Corporation USA 1992.
  • 46
    Rappaport M, Hall KU, Hopkius K, et al. Disability rating scale for severe head trauma; coma to community. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1982; 63: 118123.
  • 47
    Visuel Numerics, Inc. IMSL/LIBRARY: FORTRAN subroutines for statistical applications. Houston, Texas; 1994.
  • 48
    Hoppe-Hirsch E, Laroussinie F, Sante-Rose C, et al. Late outcome of the surgical treatment of hydrocephalus. Child Nerv Syst 1998; 14: 9799.
  • 49
    Nielsen H, Knudsen L, Daugbjerg O. Normative date for eight neuropsychological tests based on a Danish sample. Scand J Psychol 1989; 30: 3745.