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Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP), a multi site longitudinal cohort study focused on gene–environment interaction: objectives, sample characteristics, recruitment and assessment methods


Lieuwe de Haan, AMC, Academic Psychiatric Centre, Department Early Psychosis, Meibergdreef 5, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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A longitudinal focus on gene–environment vulnerability and resilience in both patients, their unaffected family members and non-related controls offers the opportunity to elucidate etiological and pathogenetic factors influencing the onset and course of psychotic disorders. The current paper delineates the objectives, sample characteristics, recruitment and assessment procedures of the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychoses (GROUP) study.


A naturalistic longitudinal cohort study with assessments at baseline, after three and six years of follow-up. The study is conducted by a consortium of four university psychiatric centres, with their affiliated mental health care institutions in the Netherlands covering more than 7.5 million inhabitants. Extensive assessment of genetic factors, environmental factors, (endo)phenotypes, and outcome.


At baseline, 1120 patients, 1057 siblings, 919 parents and 590 healthy controls were included.


The GROUP study will contribute to insight in risk and protective factors in the aetiology of non-affective psychotic disorders, and in the variation in their course and outcome. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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