• 13C NMR;
  • Proton-proton interaction;
  • Glycosides;
  • Disaccharides;
  • Configuration;
  • Conformation


Basic stereochemical factors have been revealed which affect the 13C chemical shifts in glycosides with a chiral cyclohexane-type aglycone and in disaccharides with a pyranosidic aglycone. The effects of glycosylation depend on the configuration of the anomeric centre of the glycosylating sugar residue (glycone) and on the relative absolute configuration of the glycone and aglycone. When at least one of the carbons of the aglycone, adjacent to the glycosylated carbon, bears an equatorial proton, this dependence is well accounted for by a strengthening or weakening of the spatial interaction between the protons of the glycone and aglycone, caused by a change in the conformation around the glycosidic linkage. Regularities in the glycosylation effects for disaccharides are generalized for various modes of substitution and different general configurations of the pyranosidic aglycones. Simple rules have been formulated for the prediction of the magnitudes of the glycosylation effects which can be used for the determination of some unknown structural elements in glycosides and disaccharides, in particular the absolute configuration of one of the constituent sugars.