1H-Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to detect metabolic profiles of wheat flour samples of different geographical and botanical origin. The NMR profiles were analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to establish the origin of the samples. A linear model, able to discriminate among three different locations, was built achieving a prediction level of about 80% of correctly assigned samples. The principal classes of compounds responsible for the geographic origin discrimination were individuated in aromatic compounds and amino acids. The statistical modeling also indicated that botanical origin information is very poor in the NMR profiles of the analyzed wheat samples. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.