The use of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in the brewing industry is described; most studies having aimed at assessing the composition of beer and its raw materials and correlating it to a variety of quality parameters. First, the application of NMR to the qualitative characterization of beer is reviewed, addressing both targeted and untargeted methods and focusing on both beer extracts and direct beer analysis. A subsequent chapter addresses the NMR studies, which envisage the development of new rapid methods for beer analysis and quality control, such as site-specific natural fractionation–NMR and multivariate data analysis methods for marker search or rapid compound quantification. Finally, possible future perspectives toward a deeper and more complete understanding of beer and its brewing process are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.