Complete NMR assignment of retinal and its related compounds


Correspondence to: Kui-Wu Wang, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035, China. E-mail:


Complete and unambiguous 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift assignments for all-trans-retinal, 13-cis-retinal, 11-cis-retinal and 9-cis-retinal (1–4) have been established by means of two-dimensional COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic experiments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.