Sperm from mice of the PL/J strain have a high frequency of sperm-head morphology abnormalities. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods revealed that PL/J sperm are also characterized by a high frequency of aneuploidy. The traits of abnormal sperm head morphology and aneuploidy are associated with numerous meiotic abnormalities. Spermatocytes of PL/J mice exhibit chromosome asynapsis during meiotic prophase as well as reduced crossing over, revealed by analysis of both MLH1 foci in pachytene spermatocytes and chiasmata seen at the first meiotic metaphase. During the first meiotic division, roughly one-third of the PL/J spermatocytes exhibit aberrant spindle morphology, with abnormalities including monopolar spindles, split spindle poles, and incomplete spindle formation and centrosomal abnormalities. F1 progeny of a cross between PL/J and C57BL/6J did not exhibit a high frequency of either sperm aneuploidy or sperm head morphology aberrations, as would be expected if the PL/J traits were dominant. Among progeny of a backcross of F1 mice to PL/J, none of 16 males assessed exhibited elevated frequencies of sperm head morphology abnormalities. Four of the individuals exhibited elevated sperm aneuploidy, but not at the levels of the PL/J parents. Thus, it is likely that the aberrant PL/J traits are due to several genes and/or modifiers affecting the generation of both sperm aneuploidy and abnormal sperm head morphology. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 64: 471–481, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.