• spermatozoa (salmonid);
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in sperm motility;
  • cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in sperm motility;
  • reactivation of trout sperm motility


The motility of salmonid spermatozoa initiated by dilution of the milt with ovarian fluid or isotonic saline is brief duration; it was believed that it can be activated only once in the life of the spermatozoon. Dilution of the milt with an equal volume of isotonic saline (0.12 M-NaCl) containing 5 mM-3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (MIX) prolonged and intensified sperm motiliy. When motility had stopped after initial mobilization with saline or ovarian fluid, it could be reactivated by addition of MIX; reactivated spermatozoa fertilized eggs. Dilution with saline containing K+ (24 mEq/liter) did not initiate sperm motility even in the presence of MIX. The spermatozoa were mobilized by subsequent with 0.12 M-NaCl. The concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in sperm suspensions dropped on dilution with saline and rose as motility ceased, but declined without subsequent recovery following dilution with MIX-saline. The concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) rose and fell sharply on initiation of motility and rose again after motility had declined. While salmonid spermatozoa can be mobilized by dilition with saline alone, the effectiveness of MIX in reactivating “spent” spermatozoa supports the assumption that cAMP plays a role in the initiation of sperm motility.