Sleep and arousal mechanisms in experimental epilepsy: Epileptic components of NREM and antiepileptic components of REM sleep

Authors

  • M. N. Shouse,

    Corresponding author
    1. Sleep Disturbance Research (151A3), Sepulveda Campus, VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System (VAGLAHS) and Department of Neurobiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
    • 2242 S. Bentley Ave., #4, Los Angeles CA, 90064-1940
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  • J. C. Scordato,

    1. Sleep Disturbance Research (151A3), Sepulveda Campus, VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System (VAGLAHS) and Department of Neurobiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
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  • P. R. Farber

    1. Sleep Disturbance Research (151A3), Sepulveda Campus, VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System (VAGLAHS) and Department of Neurobiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
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  • This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

Abstract

Neural generators related to different sleep components have different effects on seizure discharge. These sleep-related systems can provoke seizure discharge propagation during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and can suppress propagation during REM sleep. Experimental manipulations of discrete physiological components were conducted in feline epilepsy models, mostly in the systemic penicillin epilepsy model of primary generalized epilepsy and the amygdala kindling model of the localization-related seizure disorder, temporal lobe epilepsy. The sleep–wake state distribution of seizures was quantified before and after discrete lesions, systemic and localized drug administration, and/or photic stimulation, as well as in relation to microdialysis of norepinephrine. We found that (1) neural generators of synchronous EEG oscillations—including tonic background slow waves and phasic “arousal” events (sleep EEG transients such as sleep spindles and k-complexes)—combine to promote electrographic seizure propagation during NREM and drowsiness, and antigravity muscle tone permits seizure-related movement; (2) neural generators of asynchronous neuronal discharge patterns reduce electrographic seizures during alert waking and REM sleep, and skeletal motor paralysis blocks seizure-related movement during REM; (3) there are a number of similarities between amygdala-kindled kittens and children with Landau–Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) that suggest a link among seizures, sleep disorders, and behavioral abnormalities/regression. MRDD Research Reviews 2004;10:117–121. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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