The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): Furthering the understanding and measurement of neurodevelopmental competence in preterm and full-term infants

Authors

  • Heidelise Als,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Neurobehavioral Infant and Child Studies, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts
    • Enders Pediatric Research Laboratories, EN 107, Children's Hospital Boston, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115
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  • Samantha Butler,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Neurobehavioral Infant and Child Studies, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Sandra Kosta,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Neurobehavioral Infant and Child Studies, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Gloria McAnulty

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Neurobehavioral Infant and Child Studies, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts
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Abstract

The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological–evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous interaction with the environment. The subsystems of functioning assessed include the autonomic (respiration, digestion, color), motor (tone, movement, postures), state organization (range, robustness, transition patterns), attention (robustness, transitions), and self-regulation (effort, success) systems as well as the degree of facilitation required to support reorganization and subsystem balance. The environment is represented by a sequence of distal, proximal, tactile, and vestibular challenges, derived from the BNBAS. The APIB conceptualizes infant competence as the degree of differentiation of subsystem function and degree of modulation of subsystem balance at any stage in infant development. Infants are understood as actively seeking their next differentiation, while counting on good enough environments to assure progressing developmental competence. In the case of interference such as premature birth, the mismatch of expectation and actual experience causes misalignment, which may become developmentally costly. The assessment is a finely tuned dialogue between examiner and infant, which requires training, skill and self-knowledge. The APIB has well established inter-rater-reliability, concurrent and construct validity, and is clinically relevant for behavioral intervention and individually appropriate and supportive care. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:94–102.

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