Diffusion-tensor fiber tracking was used to identify the cores of several long-association fibers, including the anterior (ATR) and posterior (PTR) thalamic radiations, and the uncinate (UNC), superior longitudinal (SLF), inferior longitudinal (ILF), and inferior fronto-occipital (IFO) fasciculi. Tracking results were compared to existing anatomical knowledge, and showed good qualitative agreement. Guidelines were developed to reproducibly track these fibers in vivo. The interindividual variability of these reconstructions was assessed in a common spatial reference frame (Talairach space) using probabilistic mapping. As a first illustration of this technical capability, a reduction in brain connectivity in a patient with a childhood neurodegenerative disease (X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy) was demonstrated. Magn Reson Med 47:215–223, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.