Comparison of the dependence of blood R2 and Rmath image on oxygen saturation at 1.5 and 4.7 Tesla

Authors

  • M.J. Silvennoinen,

    1. Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
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  • C.S. Clingman,

    1. Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Department of Biophysics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • X. Golay,

    1. Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • R.A. Kauppinen,

    1. Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
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  • P.C.M. van Zijl

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    2. Department of Biophysics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    3. F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, 217 Traylor Bldg., 720 Rutland Ave., Baltimore, MD 21205
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Abstract

Gradient-echo (GRE) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) effects have both intra- and extravascular contributions. To better understand the intravascular contribution in quantitative terms, the spin-echo (SE) and GRE transverse relaxation rates, R2 and Rmath image, of isolated blood were measured as a function of oxygenation in a perfusion system. Over the normal oxygenation saturation range of blood between veins, capillaries, and arteries, the difference between these rates, R2 = Rmath imageR2, ranged from 1.5 to 2.1 Hz at 1.5 T and from 26 to 36 Hz at 4.7 T. The blood data were used to calculate the expected intravascular BOLD effects for physiological oxygenation changes that are typical during visual activation. This modeling showed that intravascular ΔRmath image is caused mainly by R2 relaxation changes, namely 85% and 78% at 1.5T and 4.7T, respectively. The simulations also show that at longer TEs (>70 ms), the intravascular contribution to the percentual BOLD change is smaller at high field than at low field, especially for GRE experiments. At shorter TE values, the opposite is the case. For pure parenchyma, the intravascular BOLD signal changes originate predominantly from venules for all TEs at low field and for short TEs at high field. At longer TEs at high field, the capillary contribution dominates. The possible influence of partial volume contributions with large vessels was also simulated, showing large (two- to threefold) increases in the total intravascular BOLD effect for both GRE and SE. Magn Reson Med 49:47–60, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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