In vivo measurement of brain metabolites using two-dimensional double-quantum MR spectroscopy—exploration of GABA levels in a ketogenic diet
Article first published online: 18 MAR 2003
Copyright © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Volume 49, Issue 4, pages 615–619, April 2003
How to Cite
Wang, Z. J., Bergqvist, C., Hunter, J. V., Jin, D., Wang, D.-J., Wehrli, S. and Zimmerman, R. A. (2003), In vivo measurement of brain metabolites using two-dimensional double-quantum MR spectroscopy—exploration of GABA levels in a ketogenic diet. Magn Reson Med, 49: 615–619. doi: 10.1002/mrm.10429
- Issue published online: 18 MAR 2003
- Article first published online: 18 MAR 2003
- Manuscript Accepted: 26 NOV 2002
- Manuscript Revised: 23 OCT 2002
- Manuscript Received: 4 JUN 2002
- magnetic resonance;
- 2D double-quantum spectroscopy;
- ketogenic diet;
A localized proton 2D double-quantum (DQ) spin-echo spectroscopy technique was implemented on 1.5 T clinical MRI scanners for the detection of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) in the brain. The 2D approach facilitates separation of peaks overlapping with GABA in 1D DQ-filtered (DQF) spectra. This technique was applied to four normal adult volunteers and four children with intractable epilepsy. The coefficient of variation of the level of GABA and overlapping macromolecules at F2 = 3.0 ppm and F1 = 4.8 ppm was 0.08 in normal subjects. Three patients received 2D MRS scans before and after initiation of the ketogenic diet (KD): one patient showed a trend of decreasing GABA throughout the study, and two patients showed low initial GABA levels that increased over time. In addition to major metabolites and GABA, low-level metabolites (valine, leucine, and glutathione) were also identified in the 2D spectra. Magn Reson Med 49:615–619, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.