• MAS NMR spectroscopy;
  • renal papillary necrosis;
  • 2-bromoethanamine hydrobromide;
  • glutaric acid


The metabolic consequences of xenobiotic-induced toxicity were investigated using high-resolution magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy of intact tissue. Renal papillary necrosis (RPN) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) via a single i.p. dose of 250 mg/kg 2-bromoethanamine (BEA) hydrobromide. At 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after treatment with BEA, three animals were killed and tissue samples were obtained from liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla. Tissue samples were also removed at 2 and 24 h from matched controls (n = 6). 1H MAS NMR spectroscopic techniques were used to analyze samples of intact tissue (∼10 mg). Decreased levels of nonperturbing renal osmolytes (glycerophosphocholine, betaine, and myo-inositol) were observed in the renal papilla of BEA-treated animals at 6 and 24 h postdose (p.d.), concomitant with a relative increase in the tissue concentration of creatine. Increased levels of glutaric acid were found in all tissues studied in BEA-treated animals at 4 and 6 h p.d., indicating the inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acyl CoA dehydrogenases and mitochondrial dysfunction. Increased levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide occurred in the renal cortex at 6 h p.d. Changes in the metabolite profile of liver included an increase in the relative concentrations of triglycerides, lysine, and leucine. The novel application of 1H MAS NMR to the biochemical analysis of intact tissues following a toxic insult highlights the potential of this technique as a toxicological probe in providing a direct link between urinary biomarkers of toxicity and histopathological evaluation of toxicological lesions. Magn Reson Med 45:781–790, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.