• 1
    Nicholson JK, Wilson ID. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of biofluids. Prog NMR Spectrosc 1989; 21: 444501.
  • 2
    Gartland KPR, Bonner FW, Nicholson JK. Investigations into the biochemical effects of region-specific nephrotoxins. Mol Pharmacol 1989; 35: 242250.
  • 3
    Holmes E, Bonner FW, Nicholson JK. Comparative studies on the nephrotoxicity of 2-bromoethanamine hydrobromide in the Fischer 344 rat and the multimammate desert mouse (Mastomys natalensis). Arch Toxicol 1995; 70: 8995.
  • 4
    Anthony ML, Beddell CR, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK. Studies on the comparative toxicity of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-homocysteine and 1,1,2-trichloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propene in the Fischer 344 rat. Arch Toxicol 1994; 69: 99110.
  • 5
    Iles RA, Chalmers RA. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the study of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Sci 1988; 74: 110.
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    Sanins SM, Nicholson JK, Elcombe C, Timbrell JA. Hepatotoxin-induced hypertaurinuria: a proton NMR study. Arch Toxicol 1990; 64: 407411.
  • 7
    Holmes E, Bonner FW, Sweatman BC, Lindon JC, Beddell CR, Rahr E, Nicholson JK. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pattern recognition analysis of the biochemical processes associated with the progression and recovery from nephrotoxic lesions in the rat induced by mercury II chloride and 2-bromoethanamine. Mol Pharmacol 1992; 42: 922930.
  • 8
    Beckwith-Hall B, Nicholson JK, Nicholls AW, Foxall PJD, Lindon JC, Connor SC, Abdi M, Connelly J, Holmes E. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and pattern recognition investigations into the biochemical effects of hepatotoxins. Chem Res Toxicol 1998; 11: 260272.
  • 9
    Nicholson JK, Lindon JC, Holmes E. 'Metabonomics': understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data. Xenobiotica 1999; 11: 11811189.
  • 10
    Holmes E, Nicholls AW, Lindon JC, Ramos S, Spraul M, Neidig P, Connor SC, Connelly J, Nicholson JK. Development of a model for classification of toxin-induced lesions using 1H NMR spectroscopy of urine combined with pattern recognition. NMR Biomed 1998; 11: 235244.
  • 11
    Sanins SM, Timbrell JA, Elcombe C, Nicholson JK. Proton NMR studies on the metabolism and biochemical effects of hydrazine in vivo. In: ReidE, RobinsonJD, WilsonID, editors. Bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites. New York: Plenum; 1988. p 375381.
  • 12
    Nanra RS. Renal effects of antipyretic analgesics. Am J Med 1983; November: 7079.
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    Shelley JH. Pharmacological mechanisms of analgesic nephropathy. Kidney Int 1978; 13: 1526.
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    Molland EA. Experimental papillary necrosis. Kidney Int 1978; 13: 514.
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    Bach PH, Thanh NTK. Renal papillary necrosis—40 years on. Toxicol Pathol 1998; 26: 7391.
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    Hill GS, Wyllie RG, Miller M, Hepinstall RH. Experimental papillary necrosis of the kidney. II. Electron microscopic and histochemical studies. Am J Pathol 1972; 68: 213234.
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    Sabatini S. Analgesic-induced papillary necrosis. Semin Nephrol 1988; 8: 4152.
  • 18
    Holmes E, Caddick S, Lindon JC, Wilson ID, Kryvawych S, Nicholson JK. 1H and 2H NMR spectroscopic studies on the biochemical effects and metabolism of 2-bromoethanamine in the rat: induction of transient glutaric aciduria. Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49: 13491359.
  • 19
    Anthony MLA, Holmes E, McDowell PCR, Gray TJB, Blackmore M, Nicholson JK. 1H NMR spectroscopic studies on the reactions of haloalkylamines with bicarbonate ions: formation of N-carbamates and 2-oxazolidones in cell culture media and blood plasma. Chem Res Toxicol 1995; 8: 10461053.
  • 20
    Tanaka K, Kean EA, Johnson B. Jamaican vomiting sickness: biochemical investigation into two cases. N Engl J Med 1976; 295: 461467.
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    Stanburg JB, Wyngaarden JB, Fredrickson DS, Goldstein JL, Brown MS. The metabolic basis of inherited diseases, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1983. p 461465.
  • 22
    Gartland KP, Eason CT, Wade KE, Bonner FW, Nicholson JK. Proton NMR spectroscopy of bile for monitoring the excretion of endogenous and xenobiotic metabolites: application to para-aminophenol. J Pharm Biomed Anal 1989; 7: 699707.
  • 23
    Andrew ER, Eades RG. Removal of dipolar broadening of NMR spectra of solids by specimen rotation. Nature 1959; 183: 1802.
  • 24
    Garrod SL, Humpfer E, Spraul M, Connor SC, Polley S, Connelly J, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK, Holmes E. High resolution magic-angle-spinning 1H NMR spectroscopic studies on intact rat renal cortex and medulla. Magn Reson Med 1999; 41: 11081118.
  • 25
    Humpfer E, Spraul M, Nicholls AW, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC. Direct observation of resolved intracellular and extracellular water signals in intact human red blood cells using 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med 1997; 38: 334336.
  • 26
    Cheng LL, Ma MJ, Becerra L, Hale T, Tracey I, Lackner A, Gonzalez RG. Quantitative neuropathology by high resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 64086413.
  • 27
    Moka D, Vorreuther D, Schicha H, Spraul M, Humpfer E, Lipinski M, Foxall PJD, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC. Biochemical classification of kidney carcinoma biopsy samples using magic-angle-spinning 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Pharm Biomed Anal 1998; 17: 125137.
  • 28
    Tomlins A, Foxall PJD, Lindon JC, Lynch MJ, Spraul M, Everett J, Nicholson JK. High resolution magic angle spinning 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of intact prostatic hyperplastic and tumor tissues. Anal Comm 1998; 35: 113115.
  • 29
    Cheng LL, Lean CL, Bogdanova A, Wright SC Jr, Ackerman JL, Brady TJ, Garrido L. Enhanced resolution of proton NMR spectra of malignant lymph nodes using magic angle spinning. Magn Reson Med 1996; 36: 653658.
  • 30
    Waters NJ, Garrod S, Farrant RD, Haselden JN, Connor SC, Connelly JC, Lindon JC, Holmes E, Nicholson JK. High resolution magic angle spinning 1H NMR spectroscopy of intact liver and kidney: optimization of sample preparation procedures and biochemical stability of tissue during spectral acquisition. Anal Biochem 2000; 282: 1623.
  • 31
    Nicholson JK, Foxall PJD, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC. 750 MHz 1H-C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem 1995; 34: 793804.
  • 32
    Bax A, Davis DG. MLEV-17-based two dimensional homonuclear magnetisation transfer spectroscopy. J Magn Reson 1985; 65: 355360.
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    Bollard ME, Garrod S, Holmes E, Humpfer E, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK. High-resolution direct observation of well-resolved signals from glycogen by 1H and 1H-13C magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy of rat liver. Magn Reson Med 2000; 44: 201207.
  • 34
    Davies DJ, Tange JD. Factors influencing the severity and progress of ethyleneimine-induced papillary necrosis. J Pathol 1982; 97: 695703.
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    Bennett MJ, Pollitt RJ, Goodman SI, Hale DE, Vamecq J. Atypical riboflavin-responsive glutaric aciduria and deficient peroxisomal glutaryl CoA oxidase activity: a new peroxisomal disorder. J Inherit Metab Dis 1991; 14: 165173.
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    Tanaka K, Ramsdell HS, Baretz BH, Keefe MB, Kean EA, Johnson B. Identification of ethylmalonic acid in urine of two patients with the vomiting sickness of Jamaica. Clin Chim Acta 1976; 69: 105112.
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    Kean EA, Rainford IJ. Inhibition of glyconeogenesis in vitro by a metabolite of hypoglycin. Biochim Biophys Acta 1973; 320: 557560.
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    Golden KD, Kean EA. The biogenesis of dicarboxylic acid in rats given hypoglycin. Biochim Biophys Acta 1984; 794: 8388.
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    Gullans SR, Heilig CW, Stromski ME, Blumenfeld JD. Methylamines and polyols in kidney, urinary bladder, urine, liver, brain and plasma. Renal Physiol Biochem 1989; 12: 191201.
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    Bagnasco S, Balaban R, Fales HM, Yang YM, Burg M. Predominant osmotically active organic solutes in rat and rabbit renal medullas. J Biol Chem 1986; 261: 58725877.
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    Schmolke M, Schilling A, Keiditsch E, Guder WG. Intrarenal distribution of organic osmolytes in human kidney. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1996; 34: 499501.