• fMRI;
  • nonstationarity;
  • auditory cortex;
  • functional fields


In awake animal and human auditory cortices, it is a common experience with electrophysiological and suitable imaging methods for responses to steady stimulation to be strongly state-dependent and to exhibit nonstationarities, even over short periods of observation. If such nonstationary behavior is also reflected by hemodynamic responses in the human auditory cortex, conventional methods of analysis of fMRI data, although applicable for instance to largely stationary responses in visual and other cortices, may be misleading in attempts to parcellate auditory cortex into fields and to demonstrate functional maps. Time-Windows, described in this article as a convenient tool for the detection and analysis of time-variant brain activities, solves some of these problems. Time-Windows demonstrates that activity is evoked reliably in three separate territories of human auditory cortex, parts of which may show nonstationary behavior, depending on the auditory stimuli and tasks.