• 1
    Murray CJL, Lopez AD. Evidence-based health policy lessons from the global burden of disease study. Science 1996; 274: 740743.
  • 2
    Pauwels RA, Buist AS, Calverley PM, Jenkins CR, Hurd SS. The GOLD Scientific Committee. NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Workshop summary. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 12561276.
  • 3
    Pauwels RA, Buist AS, Calverley PM, Jenkins CR, Hurd SS; GOLD Scientific Committee. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Workshop Summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 12561276.
  • 4
    Hogg JC, Macklem PT, Thurlbeck WM. Site and nature of airways obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease. N Engl J Med 1968; 278: 13551360.
  • 5
    Van Brabandt H, Cauberghs M, Verbeken E, Moerman P, Lauweryns JM, Van de Woestijne KP. Partitioning of pulmonary impedance in excised human and canine lungs. J Appl Physiol 1983; 55: 17331742.
  • 6
    Yanai M, Sekizawa K, Ohrui T, Sasaki H, Takishima T. Site of airway obstruction in pulmonary disease: direct measurement of intrabronchial pressure. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72: 10161023.
  • 7
    Mead J, Turner JM, Macklem PT, Little J. Significance of the relationship between lung recoil and maximum expiratory flow. J Appl Physiol 1967; 22: 95108.
  • 8
    Muller NL, Staples CA, Miller RR, Alboud RT. Density mask: an objective method to quantitate emphysema using computed tomography. Chest 1988; 94: 782787.
  • 9
    Gevenois PA, de Maertelaer V, De Vuyst P, Zanen J, Yernault JC. Comparison of computed density and macroscopic morphometry in pulmonary emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 152: 653657.
  • 10
    Coxson HO, Rogers RM, Whittall KP, D'Yachkova Y, Pare PD, Sciurba FC, Hogg JC. A quantification of the lung surface area in emphysema using computed tomography. J Respir Crit Care Med 1999; 159: 851856; Erratum: Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1961;163:1500–1501.
  • 11
    Leawoods JC, Yablonskiy DA, Saam BT, Gierada DS, Conradi MS. Hyperpolarized 3He gas production and MR imaging of the lung. Concepts Magn Reson 2001; 13: 277293.
  • 12
    Salerno M, de Lange EE, Altes TA, Truwit JD, Brookeman JR, Mugler JP. Emphysema: hyperpolarized helium 3 diffusion MR imaging of the lungs compared with spirometric indexes—initial experience. Radiology 2002; 222: 252260.
  • 13
    Snider GL, Kleinerman JL, Thurlbeck WM, Bengally ZH. Definition of emphysema. Report of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Division of Lung Diseases. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 132: 182185.
  • 14
    Duguid JR, Young A, Cauna D, Lambert MU. The internal surface area of the lung in emphysema. J Clin Pathol 1964; 88: 405421.
  • 15
    Thurlbeck WM. The internal surface area of non-emphysematous lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 1967; 95: 765773.
  • 16
    Thurlbeck WM. Internal surface area and other measurements in emphysema. Thorax 1967; 22: 483496.
  • 17
    Retamales I, Elliott M, Meshi B, Coxson HO, Pare P, Sciurba F, Rogers R, Hayashi S, Hogg J. Amplification of inflammation in emphysema and its association with latent adenoviral infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164: 469473.
  • 18
    Meshi B, Vitalis T, Ionescu D, Elliott WM, Chun L, Wang X, Hayashi S, Hogg JC. Emphysematous lung destruction by cigarette smoke. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002; 26: 5257.
  • 19
    Möller HE, Chen XJ, Saam B, Hagspiel KD, Johnson GA, Altes TA, de Lange EE, Kauczor H-U. MRI of the lungs using hyperpolarized noble gases. Magn Reson Med 2002; 47: 10291051.
  • 20
    Saam BT, Yablonskiy DA, Gierada DS, Conradi MS. Rapid imaging of hyperpolarized gas using EPI. Magn Reson Med 1999; 42: 507514.
  • 21
    Saam BT, Yablonskiy DA, Kodibagkar VD, Leawoods JC, Gierada DS, Cooper JD, Lefrak SS, Conradi MS. MR imaging of diffusion of 3He gas in healthy and diseased lungs. Magn Reson Med 2000; 44: 174179.
  • 22
    Yablonskiy DA, Sukstanskii AL, Leawoods JC, Gierada DS, Bretthorst GL, Lefrak SS, Cooper JD, Conradi MS. Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized 3He diffusion MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 31113116.
  • 23
    Weibel ER. Stereologic methods. 1980. London: Academic Press. p 9196.
  • 24
    Fox JC, Tudhope SR, Meshi B, Hogg JC, Stockley RA. Development of a computer based image analysis technique for the detection of emphysema. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2003; 167: A744.
  • 25
    Newell JrJD, Hogg JC, Snider GL. Report of a workshop: quantitative computed tomography scanning in longitudinal studies of emphysema. Eur Respir J 2004; 23: 76975.
  • 26
    Fichele S, Paley MN, Woodhouse N, Griffiths PD, Van Beek EJ, Wild JM. Finite-difference simulations of 3He diffusion in 3D alveolar ducts: comparison with the “cylinder model.” Magn Reson Med 2004; 52: 917920.
  • 27
    Leawoods JC, Choong CK, Yablonskiy DA, Chino K, Pierce JA, Cooper JD, Conradi MS, Hogg JC. Characterization of the extent of emphysema in human lungs via 3He MRI. FASEB J 2004; 624: 12
  • 28
    Howard CV, Reed MG. Unbiased stereology. 2nd ed. Oxon: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2005. p 104111.
  • 29
    Cambell H, Tomkeieff SI. Calculation of internal surface area. Nature 1952; 170: 117.
  • 30
    Haefeli-Bleuer B, Weibel ER. Morphometry of the human pulmonary acinus. Anat Rec 1988; 220: 401414.
  • 31
    Woods JC, Yablonskiy DA, Choong CK, Chino K, Pierce JA, Hogg JC, Bentley J, Cooper JD, Conradi MS, Macklem PT. Long-range diffusion of hyperpolarized 3He in explanted normal and emphysematous human lungs via magnetization tagging. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99: 19921997.