• magnetic resonance imaging;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • calcium;
  • 31P solid-state imaging;
  • human carotid


Calcified tissue is a common component of atherosclerotic plaques, and occurs most often in mature plaques. The process of calcification is a poorly understood risk factor that may contribute to a plaque's vulnerability to sudden rupture. In this study a solid-state imaging sequence, termed single-point imaging (SPI), was used to observe calcification directly in ex vivo atherosclerotic plaques. Standards were used to validate the ability of 31P SPI to detect and differentiate calcification from crystalline cholesterol, phospholipids, and other plaque components. After suitable experimental parameters were found, human carotid specimens obtained by endarterectomy were imaged ex vivo by 31P solid-state imaging and standard 1H methods. In contrast to 1H imaging methods, 31P imaging detected only the calcification in the plaque. Magn Reson Med, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.