• 1
    Diamant M, Lamb HJ, Groeneveld Y, Endert EL, Smit JW, Bax JJ, Romijn JA, de Roos A, Radder JK. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with altered myocardial metabolism in asymptomatic normotensive patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42: 328335.
  • 2
    Opie LH. The metabolic vicious cycle in heart failure. Lancet 2004; 364: 17334.
  • 3
    Peterson LR, Herrero P, Schechtman KB, Racette SB, Waggoner AD, Kisrieva-Ware Z, Dence C, Klein S, Marsala J, Meyer T, Gropler RJ. Effect of obesity and insulin resistance on myocardial substrate metabolism and efficiency in young women. Circulation 2004; 109: 21912196.
  • 4
    Virkamäki A, Korsheninnikova E, Seppälä-Lindroos A, Vehkavaara S, Goto, T, Halavaara J, Häkkinen A, Yki-Järvinen H. Intramyocellular lipid is associated with resistance to in vivo insulin actions on glucose uptake, antilipolysis, and early insulin signaling pathways in human skeletal muscle. Diabetes 2001; 50: 23372343.
  • 5
    Unger R. Lipotoxic diseases. Annu Rev Med 2002; 53: 319336.
  • 6
    Zhou Y, Grayburn P, Karim A, Shimabukuro M, Higa M, Baetens D, Orci L, Unger R. Lipotoxic heart disease in obese rats: implications for human obesity. PNAS 2000; 97: 17841789.
  • 7
    Sharma S, Adrogue JV, Golfman L, Uray I, Lemm J, Youker K, Noon GP, Frazier OH, Taegtmeyer H. Intramyocardial lipid accumulation in the failing human heart resembles the lipotoxic rat heart. FASEB J 2004; 18: 16921700.
  • 8
    Boesch C, Machann J, Vermathen P, Schick F. Role of proton MR for the study of muscle lipid metabolism. NMR Biomed 2006; 19: 968988.
  • 9
    Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins RL, Metzger GJ, Sartoni-D'Ambrosia G, Arbique D, Vongpatanasin W, Unger R, Victor RG. Myocardial triglycerides and systolic function in humans: in vivo evaluation by localized proton spectroscopy and cardiac imaging. Magn Reson Med 2003; 49: 417423.
  • 10
    Thomas EL, Hamilton G, Natel N, O'Dwyer R, Dore CJ, Goldin RD, Bell JD, Taylor-Robinson SD. Hepatic triglyceride content and its relation to body adiposity: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Gut 2005; 54: 122127.
  • 11
    Torriani M, Thomas BJ, Halpern EF, Jensen ME, Rosenthal DI, Palmer WE. Intramyocellular lipid quantification: repeatability with 1H MR spectroscopy. Radiology 2005; 236: 609614.
  • 12
    McGavock JM, Lingvay I, Zib I, Tillery T, Salas N, Unger R, Levine BD, Raskin. P, Victor RG, Szczepaniak LS. Cardiac steatosis in diabetes mellitus A 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Circulation 2007; 116: 11701175.
  • 13
    van der Meer RW, Rijzewijk LJ, de Jong HW, Lamb HJ, Lubberink M, Romijn JA, Bax JJ, de Roos A, Kamp O, Paulus WJ, Heine RJ, Lammertsma AA, Smit JW, Diamant M. Pioglitazone improves cardiac function and alters myocardial substrate metabolism without affecting cardiac triglyceride accumulation and high-energy phosphate metabolism in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 2009; 119: 20202022.
  • 14
    O'Connor RD, Gropler RJ, Peterson L, Schaffer J, Ackerman JJH. Limits of a localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy assay for ex vivo myocardial triacylglycerol. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2007; 45: 382389.
  • 15
    Schenetti L, Mucci A, Parenti F, Cagnoli R, Righi V, Tosh MR, Tugnoli V. HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy in the characterization of human tissues: application to healthy gastric mucosa. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 2006; 28: 430443.
  • 16
    O'Connor RD, Bashir A, Cade WT, Yarasheski KE, Gropler RJ. 1H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantifying myocardial lipid content in humans with the cardiometabolic syndrome. J Clin Hypertens 2009; 11: 528532.
  • 17
    Xu J. MRS with free-breathing 2D-PACE (WIP). New York: Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc.; 2006.
  • 18
    Mao J, Mareci TH, Andrew ER. Experimental study of optimal selective 180° radiofrequency pulses. J Magn Reson 1988; 79: 110.
  • 19
    Cunningham CH, Wood ML. Method for improved multiband excitation profiles using the Shinnar–Le Roux transform. Magn Reson Med 1999; 42: 577584.
  • 20
    Ernst T, Chang L. Elimination of artifacts in short echo time 1H MR spectroscopy of the frontal lobe. Magn Reson Med 1996; 36: 462468.
  • 21
    Naressi A, Couturier C, Devos JM, Janssen M, Mangeat C, de Beer R, Graveron-Demilly D. Java-based graphical user interface for the MRUI quantitation package. MAGMA 2001; 12: 141152.
  • 22
    Vanhamme L, van den Boogaart A, Van Huffel S. Improved method for accurate and efficient quantification of MRS data with use of prior-knowledge. J Magn Reson 1997; 129: 3543.
  • 23
    Hopkins WG. Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Med 2000; 30: 115.
  • 24
    Hopkins WG. Reliability spreadsheet, Available at: September 2010: a new view of statistics; 2009. Accessed March 2010.
  • 25
    Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Biochimica Clinica 1986: 399317.
  • 26
    Lenth RV. Java applets for power and sample size. 3.0: Available at:∼rlenth/Power; 2006. Accessed March 2010.
  • 27
    Reingold JS, McGavock JM, Kaka S, Tillery T, Victor RG, Szczepaniak LS. Determination of triglyceride in the human myocardium by magnetic resonance spectroscopy: reproducibility and sensitivity of the method. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 289: E935E939.
  • 28
    van der Meer RW, Doornbos J, Kozerke S, Schär M, Bax JJ, Hammer S, Smit JWA, Romijn JA, Diamant M, Rijzewijk LJ, de Roos A, Lamb HJ. Metabolic imaging of myocardial triglyceride content: reproducibility of 1H MR spectroscopy with respiratory navigator gating in volunteers. Radiology 2007; 245: 251257.