The recent developments in high magnetic field 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy with improved localization and shimming techniques have led to important gains in sensitivity and spectral resolution of 13C in vivo spectra in the rodent brain, enabling the separation of several 13C isotopomers of glutamate and glutamine. In this context, the assumptions used in spectral quantification might have a significant impact on the determination of the 13C concentrations and the related metabolic fluxes. In this study, the time domain spectral quantification algorithm AMARES (advanced method for accurate, robust and efficient spectral fitting) was applied to 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra acquired in the rat brain at 9.4 T, following infusion of [1,6-13C2] glucose. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and in vivo data, the goal of this work was: (1) to validate the quantification of in vivo 13C isotopomers using AMARES; (2) to assess the impact of the prior knowledge on the quantification of in vivo 13C isotopomers using AMARES; (3) to compare AMARES and LCModel (linear combination of model spectra) for the quantification of in vivo 13C spectra. AMARES led to accurate and reliable 13C spectral quantification similar to those obtained using LCModel, when the frequency shifts, J-coupling constants and phase patterns of the different 13C isotopomers were included as prior knowledge in the analysis. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.