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Keywords:

  • deuterated water;
  • glucuronide;
  • glucose;
  • gluconeogenesis

Plasma glucose 2H-enrichment in positions 5 (2H5) and 2 (2H2) from deuterated water (2H2O) provides a measure of the gluconeogenic contribution to endogenous glucose production. Urinary glucuronide analysis can circumvent blood sampling but it is not known if glucuronide and glucose enrichments are equal. Thirteen subjects with impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance and 11 subjects with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance ingested 2H2O to ∼0.5% body water and acetaminophen. Glucose and glucuronide 2H5 and 2H2 were measured by 2H NMR spectroscopy of monoacetone glucose. For normal fasting glucose/normal glucose tolerance, 2H5 was 0.23 ± 0.02% and 0.25 ± 0.02% for glucose and glucuronide, respectively, whereas 2H2 was 0.47 ± 0.01% and 0.49 ± 0.02%, respectively. For impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, 2H5 was 0.22 ± 0.01% and 0.26 ± 0.02% for glucose and glucuronide, respectively, whereas 2H2 was 0.46 ± 0.01% and 0.49 ± 0.02%, respectively. The gluconeogenic contribution to endogenous glucose production measured from glucose and glucuronide were identical for both normal fasting glucose/normal glucose tolerance (48 ± 4 vs. 51 ± 3%) and impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance (48 ± 2 vs. 53 ± 3%). Magn Reson Med 70:315–319, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.