• tissue phase mapping;
  • myocardial motion;
  • golden-angle;
  • image-based self-navigation


To create a high temporal- and spatial-resolution retrospectively cardiac-gated, tissue phase mapping (TPM) sequence, using an image-based respiratory navigator calculated from the data itself.


The sequence was based on a golden-angle spiral acquisition. Reconstruction of real-time images allowed creation of an image-based navigator. The expiratory spiral interleaves were then retrospectively cardiac-gated using data binning. TPM data were acquired in 20 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with pulmonary hypertension. Longitudinal and radial myocardial velocities were calculated in the left ventricle and right ventricle.


The image-based navigator was shown to correlate well with simultaneously acquired airflow data in 10 volunteers(r=0.93±0.04). The TPM navigated images had a significantly higher subjective image quality and edge sharpness (P<0.0001) than averaged spiral TPM. No significant differences in myocardial velocities were seen between conventional Cartesian TPM with navigator respiratory-gating and the proposed self-navigated TPM technique, in 10 volunteers. Significant differences in the velocities were seen between the volunteers and patients in the left ventricle at systole and end diastole and in the right ventricle at end diastole.


The feasibility of measuring myocardial motion using a golden-angle spiral TPM sequence was demonstrated, with an image-based respiratory navigator calculated from the TPM data itself. Magn Reson Med 71:145–155, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.