Detection of smoke-induced pulmonary lesions by hyperpolarized 129Xe diffusion kurtosis imaging in rat models

Authors

  • Weiwei Ruan,

    1. Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Jianping Zhong,

    1. Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China
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  • Yu Guan,

    1. Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
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  • Yi Xia,

    1. Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
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  • Xiuchao Zhao,

    1. Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China
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  • Yeqing Han,

    1. Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China
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  • Xianping Sun,

    1. Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Shiyuan Liu,

    1. Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
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  • Chaohui Ye,

    1. Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China
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  • Xin Zhou

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P. R. China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China
    • Correspondence to: Xin Zhou, Ph.D. Professor, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 30 West Xiaohongshan, Wuhan, China. E-mail: xinzhou@wipm.ac.cn

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Abstract

Purpose

To demonstrate that hyperpolarized (HP) xenon diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is able to detect smoke-induced pulmonary lesions in rat models.

Methods

Multi-b DKI with hyperpolarized xenon was used for the first time in five smoke-exposed rats and five healthy rats. Additionally, DKI with b values of up to 80 s/cm2 were used in two healthy rats to probe the critical b value (a limit beyond which the DKI cannot describe the non-Gaussian diffusion).

Results

The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) and diffusion kurtosis (Kapp) extracted by the DKI model revealed significant changes in the smoke-exposed rats compared with those in the control group (P = 0.027 and 0.039, respectively), exhibiting strong correlations with mean linear intercept (Lm) from the histology. Although the maximum b value was increased to 80 s/cm2, the DKI could still describe the non-Gaussian diffusion (R2 > 0.97).

Conclusion

DKI with hyperpolarized xenon exhibited sensitivity in the detection of pulmonary lesions induced by smoke, including moderate emphysema and small airway diseases. The critical b value was rarely exceeded in DKI of the lungs due to the limited gradient strength of the MRI scanner used in our study. Magn Reson Med 78:1891–1899, 2016. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

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