• cell transplantation;
  • dopamine;
  • embryonic stem cell;
  • GDNF;
  • gene therapy;
  • iPS cell;
  • neural stem cell;
  • neurturin;
  • Parkinson's disease;
  • ventral mesencephalon


Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting, in part, dopaminergic motor neurons of the ventral midbrain and their terminal projections that course to the striatum. Symptomatic strategies focused on dopamine replacement have proven effective at remediating some motor symptoms during the course of disease but ultimately fail to deliver long-term disease modification and lose effectiveness due to the emergence of side effects. Several strategies have been experimentally tested as alternatives for Parkinson's disease, including direct cell replacement and gene transfer through viral vectors. Cellular transplantation of dopamine-secreting cells was hypothesized as a substitute for pharmacotherapy to directly provide dopamine, whereas gene therapy has primarily focused on restoration of dopamine synthesis or neuroprotection and restoration of spared host dopaminergic circuitry through trophic factors as a means to enhance sustained controlled dopamine transmission. This seems now to have been verified in numerous studies in rodents and nonhuman primates, which have shown that grafts of fetal dopamine neurons or gene transfer through viral vector delivery can lead to improvements in biochemical and behavioral indices of dopamine deficiency. However, in clinical studies, the improvements in parkinsonism have been rather modest and variable and have been plagued by graft-induced dyskinesias. New developments in stem-cell transplantation and induced patient-derived cells have opened the doors for the advancement of cell-based therapeutics. In addition, viral-vector–derived therapies have been developed preclinically with excellent safety and efficacy profiles, showing promise in clinical trials thus far. Further progress and optimization of these therapies will be necessary to ensure safety and efficacy before widespread clinical use is deemed appropriate. Mt Sinai J Med 78:126–158, 2011. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine