Cytokines, chemokines, and cell adhesion molecules in inflammatory myopathies

Authors

  • Dominique Figarella-Branger MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratoire de Biopathologie Nerveuse et Musculaire (EA 3281), Faculté de Médecine Timone, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
    2. Service d'Anatomie Pathologique et de Neuropathologie, Hôpital de la Timone, Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France
    • Laboratoire de Biopathologie Nerveuse et Musculaire (EA 3281), Faculté de Médecine Timone, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
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  • Muriel Civatte MD,

    1. Laboratoire de Biopathologie Nerveuse et Musculaire (EA 3281), Faculté de Médecine Timone, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
    2. Service d'Anatomie Pathologique et de Neuropathologie, Hôpital de la Timone, Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France
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  • Catherine Bartoli PhD,

    1. Laboratoire de Biopathologie Nerveuse et Musculaire (EA 3281), Faculté de Médecine Timone, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
    2. Service d'Anatomie Pathologique et de Neuropathologie, Hôpital de la Timone, Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France
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  • Jean-François Pellissier MD

    1. Laboratoire de Biopathologie Nerveuse et Musculaire (EA 3281), Faculté de Médecine Timone, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France
    2. Service d'Anatomie Pathologique et de Neuropathologie, Hôpital de la Timone, Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France
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Abstract

The inflammatory myopathies include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and sporadic inclusion-body myositis (s-IBM). In DM, the main immune effector response appears to be humoral and directed against the microvasculature, whereas in both PM and s-IBM, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and macrophages invade and eventually destroy nonnecrotic muscle fibers expressing major histocompatibility complex class I. The need for more specific and safer therapies in inflammatory myopathies has prompted researchers to better decipher the molecular events associated with inflammation and muscle fiber loss in these diseases. The complex specific migration of leukocyte subsets to target tissues requires a coordinated series of events, namely activation of leukocytes, adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and migration. Cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and chemokines play a major role in this multistep process. In addition, cytokines by stimulating CAM expression and orchestrating T-cell differentiation also influence the immune response. This review focuses on recent advances in defining the molecular events involved in leukocyte trafficking in inflammatory myopathies. Specific topics include a concise summary of clinical features, pathological findings and immunopathology observed in inflammatory myopathies, background information about cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and the expression of these molecules in inflammatory myopathies. Muscle Nerve 28: 659–682, 2003

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