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Keywords:

  • CIDP;
  • brachial plexus;
  • conduction block;
  • immune-mediated neuropathies;
  • nerve hypertrophy;
  • ultrasound

Introduction: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis is based mainly on the clinical presentation and electrophysiological detection of demyelination. Methods: Several MRI studies have demonstrated hypertrophy and abnormal enhancement of spinal nerve roots or brachial plexus in CIDP, but there have been only anecdotal reports of similar sonographic findings. Results: This article reports the sonographic findings of a CIDP case and includes a review of the literature and previously reported cases. Conclusions: This case report highlights the importance of sonography in the localization and recognition of focal nerve enlargements in patients with CIDP. This method could be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of conduction block in CIDP, especially in cases where a nerve segment cannot be explored easily with the inching technique. Systematic data are needed to confirm this observation. Muscle Nerve 47:443-446, 2013