Neuromuscular ultrasound for evaluation of the diaphragm

Authors

  • Aarti Sarwal MD,

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Neurology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Reynolds M, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
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  • Francis O. Walker MD,

    1. Department of Neurology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Reynolds M, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
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  • Michael S. Cartwright MD, MS

    1. Department of Neurology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Reynolds M, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
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Department of Neurology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Reynolds M, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA. E-mail: asarwal@wakehealth.edu

Abstract

Neuromuscular clinicians are often asked to evaluate the diaphragm for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Traditionally, this evaluation is accomplished through history, physical exam, fluoroscopic sniff test, nerve conduction studies, and electromyography (EMG). Nerve conduction studies and EMG in this setting are challenging, uncomfortable, and can cause serious complications, such as pneumothorax. Neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a non-invasive technique that can be used in the structural and functional assessment of the diaphragm. In this study we review different techniques for assessing the diaphragm using neuromuscular ultrasound and the application of these techniques to enhance diagnosis and prognosis by neuromuscular clinicians. Muscle Nerve 47:319-329, 2013

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