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Keywords:

  • axonal degeneration;
  • cerebrospinal fluid;
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome;
  • neurofilaments;
  • prognosis

ABSTRACT

Introduction

Proximal axonotmesis results in the release of neurofilament (Nf) proteins into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). High CSF levels of the phosphorylated form of Nf-heavy chain (NfHSMI35) at GBS onset have been reported to be a poor prognostic marker, but routine measurement of CSF NfHSMI35 levels has not been done and the longitudinal profile of CSF NfHSMI35 levels in GBS is not known.

Methods

This prospective case series describes the clinical, neurophysiological, and biomarker characteristics of 3 patients with severe GBS.

Results

High and increasing levels of CSF NfHSMI35 in serial CSF samples were associated with poor clinical and electrophysiological outcome.

Conclusions

These data further suggest that CSF NfHSMI35 could be a prognostic biomarker which might indicate the development of retrograde axonal degeneration or additional proximal axonal damage during the course of GBS. Muscle Nerve, 2013