Muscle co-activation: A generalized or localized motor control strategy?
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company
- Accepted manuscript online: 30 JAN 2013 10:35PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 17 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 14 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 24 AUG 2012
- United States Council for Automotive Research, Southfield, MI
- NIH. Grant Numbers: NRSA F31 AR056175 (KGA), K12 HD055931 (LFL), K01AR056134 (LFL)
- American Physical Therapy Association (KGA)
- Cited By
- muscle cocontraction;
- motor control;
Introduction: We examined generalized versus joint-specific influences on muscle co-activation.
Methods: Muscle co-activation was assessed during maximal isometric and isokinetic knee and elbow joint extension moments in 48 healthy subjects (27 men). Local (joint-specific) and generalized (person-specific) contributions were examined using a combination of statistical tests: regression using generalized estimating equations (GEEs), exploratory factor analysis, and cluster analysis.
Results: GEEs produced similar significant coefficients for gender and joint; contraction type and test condition (angle or velocity) were not significant. Factor analysis indicated 2 joint-based factors, and cluster analysis indicated 2 groups of individuals, those with or without elevated co-activation at the knee and elbow. Women exhibited greater co-activation at both joints, however, no consistent influences of angle or velocity were observed at either joint.
Discussion: We conclude that muscle co-activation is a neuromuscular control response determined by local, joint-specific, and generalized, individual-specific influences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.