• knee injury;
  • physical therapy;
  • rehabilitation;
  • sports injuries;
  • ubiquitin protein ligase


Introduction: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used to improve quadriceps mass after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. We studied the effect of NMES on mRNA levels of atrophy genes in the quadriceps muscle of rats after ACL transection. Methods: mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin were assessed by quantitative PCR and the polyubiquitinated proteins by Western blot at 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 days postinjury. Results: NMES minimized the accumulation of atrogenes and myostatin according to time period. NMES also prevented reduction in muscle mass in all muscles of the ACLES group at 3 days. Conclusions: Use of NMES decreased the accumulation of atrogenes and myostatin mRNA in the quadriceps muscles, inhibiting early atrophy at 3 days, although it did not prevent atrophy at 7 and 15 days after ACL transection. This study highlights the importance of therapeutic NMES interventions in the acute phase after ACL transection. Muscle Nerve 49: 120–128, 2014