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Smoking and carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis



Introduction: We assessed the association between smoking and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and estimated the magnitude of the association with meta-analysis. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and SciVerse databases were searched through December 2012. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results: Cross-sectional studies reported an association between current smoking and CTS (pooled odds ratio (OR) = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38–2.60, I-squared = 0%). Meta-analyses of case–control studies did not, however, show an association between smoking and CTS (pooled OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.95–1.12, I-squared = 0.0%) or surgery due to CTS (pooled OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.82–1.15, I-squared = 0%). Moreover, smoking was not associated with CTS in the meta-analysis of cohort studies (pooled OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.45–1.50, I-squared = 0%). Conclusions: We found an association between smoking and CTS in cross-sectional studies. This association should be explored further in appropriately designed case–control and cohort studies. Muscle Nerve 49:345–350, 2014