• 1
    Barrington FJF. The effect of lesion of the hind-and mid brain on micturition in the cat. Q J Exp Physiol 1925; 15: 81102.
  • 2
    Chancellor MB, Yoshimura N. Physiology and pharmacology of the bladder and urethra. In: WeinAJ, editor. Campbell-walsh urology, 9th edition. Philadelphia, PA, USA: B. Saunders Elserion; 2006. Chapter 56, pp 192272.
  • 3
    de Groat WC, Booth AM, Yoshimura N. Neurophysiology of micturition and its modification in animal models of human disease. In: MaggiCA, editor. Nervous control of the urogenital system. London, UK: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1993. p. 22790.
  • 4
    Everaerts W, Gevaert T, Nilius B, et al. On the origin of bladder sensing: Tr(i)ps in urology. Neurourol Urodyn 2008; 27: 26473.
  • 5
    Fowler CJ, Griffiths D, de Groat WC. The neural control of micturition. Nat Rev Neurosci 2008; 9: 45366.
  • 6
    Morrison J, Birder L, Craggs M, et al. Neural control. In: AbramsP, WeinA, editors. Incontinence. Plymouth, UK: Health Publications; 2005. p. 363422.
  • 7
    Torrens M, Morrison JFB. The physiology of the lower urinary tract. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1987.
  • 8
    Araki I, de Groat WC. Developmental synaptic depression underlying reorganization of visceral reflex pathways in the spinal cord. J Neurosci 1997; 17: 84027.
  • 9
    de Groat WC. Spinal cord projections and neuropeptides in visceral afferent neurons. Prog Brain Res 1986; 67: 16587.
  • 10
    Gabella G, Davis C. Distribution of afferent axons in the bladder of rats. J Neurocytol 1998; 27: 14155.
  • 11
    Smet PJ, Moore KH, Jonavicius J. Distribution and colocalization of calcitonin gene-related peptide, tachykinins, and vasoactive intestinal peptide in normal and idiopathic unstable human urinary bladder. Lab Invest 1997; 77: 3749.
  • 12
    Uemura E, Fletcher T, Dirks V, et al. Distribution of sacral afferent axons in cat urinary bladder. Am J Anat 1973; 136: 30513.
  • 13
    Birder L, de Groat W, Apodaca G. Physiology of the urothelium. In: CorcosJ, SchickE, editors. Textbook of the neurogenic bladder. London, UK: Informa Healthcare; 2008. p. 1939.
  • 14
    Uemura E, Fletcher TF, Bradley WE. Distribution of lumbar and sacral afferent axons in submucosa of cat urinary bladder. Anat Rec 1975; 183: 57987.
  • 15
    Gillespie JI, Markerink-van Ittersum M, de Vente J. Sensory collaterals, intramural ganglia and motor nerves in the guinea-pig bladder: Evidence for intramural neural circuits. Cell Tissue Res 2006; 325: 3345.
  • 16
    Chai TC, Steers WD, Broder SR, et al. Characterization of laterality of innervation of the rat bladder. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 1996; 179: 8792.
  • 17
    Morgan C, Nadelhaft I, de Groat WC. The distribution of visceral primary afferents from the pelvic nerve to Lissauer's tract and the spinal gray matter and its relationship to the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. J Comp Neurol 1981; 201: 41540.
  • 18
    Christianson JA, Liang R, Ustinova EE, et al. Convergence of bladder and colon sensory innervation occurs at the primary afferent level. Pain 2007; 128: 23543.
  • 19
    Keast JR, de Groat WC. Segmental distribution and peptide content of primary afferent neurons innervating the urogenital organs and colon of male rats. J Comp Neurol 1992; 319: 61523.
  • 20
    Malykhina AP, Qin C, Greenwood-van Meerveld B, et al. Hyperexcitability of convergent colon and bladder dorsal root ganglion neurons after colonic inflammation: Mechanism for pelvic organ cross-talk. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2006; 18: 93648.
  • 21
    Pezzone MA, Liang R, Fraser MO. A model of neural cross-talk and irritation in the pelvis: Implications for the overlap of chronic pelvic pain disorders. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 195364.
  • 22
    Jancsó G, Maggi CA. Distribution of capsaicin-sensitive urinary bladder afferents in the rat spinal cord. Brain Res 1987; 418: 3716.
  • 23
    Steers WD, Ciambotti J, Etzel B, et al. Alterations in afferent pathways from the urinary bladder of the rat in response to partial urethral obstruction. J Comp Neurol 1991; 310: 40110.
  • 24
    Morgan C, deGroat WC, Nadelhaft I. The spinal distribution of sympathetic preganglionic and visceral primary afferent neurons that send axons into the hypogastric nerves of the cat. J Comp Neurol 1986; 243: 2340.
  • 25
    Appelbaum AE, Vance WH, Coggeshall RE. Segmental localization of sensory cells that innervate the bladder. J Comp Neurol 1980; 192: 2039.
  • 26
    Jänig W, Morrison JF. Functional properties of spinal visceral afferents supplying abdominal and pelvic organs, with special emphasis on visceral nociception. Prog Brain Res 1986; 67: 87114.
  • 27
    Thor KB, Morgan C, Nadelhaft I, et al. Organization of afferent and efferent pathways in the pudendal nerve of the female cat. J Comp Neurol 1989; 288: 26379.
  • 28
    Ueyama T, Mizuno N, Nomura S, et al. Central distribution of afferent and efferent components of the pudendal nerve in cat. J Comp Neurol 1984; 222: 3846.
  • 29
    Birder LA, de Groat WC. Induction of c-fos gene expression of spinal neurons in the rat by nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimulation of the lower urinary tract. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 1993; 265: R32633.
  • 30
    Birder LA, Roppolo JR, Erickson VL, et al. Increased c-fos expression in spinal lumbosacral projection neurons and preganglionic neurons after irritation of the lower urinary tract in the rat. Brain Res 1999; 834: 5565.
  • 31
    Vizzard MA. Increased expression of spinal cord Fos protein induced by bladder stimulation after spinal cord injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2000; 279: R295305.
  • 32
    Hulsebosch CE, Coggeshall RE. An analysis of the axon populations in the nerves to the pelvic viscera in the rat. J Comp Neurol 1982; 211: 110.
  • 33
    Uvelius B, Gabella G. The distribution of intramural nerves in urinary bladder after partial denervation in the female rat. Urol Res 1998; 26: 2917.
  • 34
    Lawson SN, Perry MJ, Prabhakar E, et al. Primary sensory neurones: Neurofilament, neuropeptides, and conduction velocity. Brain Res Bull 1993; 30: 23943.
  • 35
    Yoshimura N, Erdman SL, Snider MW, et al. Effects of spinal cord injury on neurofilament immunoreactivity and capsaicin sensitivity in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the urinary bladder. Neuroscience 1998; 83: 63343.
  • 36
    de Groat WC. Neuropeptides in pelvic afferent pathways. In: PolakJM, editor. Regulatory Peptides Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag AG; 1989. p. 33461.
  • 37
    Maggi CA. The dual, sensory and efferent function of the capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory nerves in the bladder and urethra. In: MaggiCA, editor. Nervous control of the urogenital system. London, UK: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1993. p. 383422.
  • 38
    Vizzard MA. Alterations in neuropeptide expression in lumbosacral bladder pathways following chronic cystitis. J Chem Neuroanat 2001; 21: 12538.
  • 39
    Vizzard MA. Neurochemical plasticity and the role of neurotrophic factors in bladder reflex pathways after spinal cord injury. Prog Brain Res 2006; 152: 97115.
  • 40
    Vizzard MA, Erdman SL, de Groat WC. Increased expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in bladder afferent pathways following chronic bladder irritation. J Comp Neurol 1996; 370: 191202.
  • 41
    Keast JR, Stephensen TM. Glutamate and aspartate immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglion cells supplying visceral and somatic targets and evidence for peripheral axonal transport. J Comp Neurol 2000; 424: 57787.
  • 42
    Kawatani M, Erdman SL, de Groat WC. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and substance P in primary afferent pathways to the sacral spinal cord of the cat. J Comp Neurol 1985; 241: 32747.
  • 43
    Kawatani M, Nagel J, de Groat WC. Identification of neuropeptides in pelvic and pudendal nerve afferent pathways to the sacral spinal cord of the cat. J Comp Neurol 1986; 249: 11732.
  • 44
    Kawatani M, Suzuki T, de Groat WC. Corticotropin releasing factor-like immunoreactivity in afferent projections to the sacral spinal cord of the cat. J Auton Nerv Syst 1996; 61: 21826.
  • 45
    Bennett HL, Gustafsson JA, Keast JR. Estrogen receptor expression in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion cells innervating the female rat urinary bladder. Auton Neurosci 2003; 105: 90100.
  • 46
    Forrest SL, Keast JR. Expression of receptors for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands in sacral spinal cord reveals separate targets of pelvic afferent fibers. J Comp Neurol 2008; 506: 9891002.
  • 47
    Klinger MB, Vizzard MA. The role of p75NTR in female rat urinary bladder with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2008; 295: F177889.
  • 48
    Zinck ND, Downie JW. IB4 afferent sprouting contributes to bladder dysfunction in spinal rats. Exp Neurol 2008; 213: 293302.
  • 49
    Bennett DL, Dmietrieva N, Priestley JV, et al. trkA, CGRP and IB4 expression in retrogradely labelled cutaneous and visceral primary sensory neurones in the rat. Neurosci Lett 1996; 206: 336.
  • 50
    Streng T, Axelsson HE, Hedlund P, et al. Distribution and function of the hydrogen sulfide-sensitive TRPA1 ion channel in rat urinary bladder. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 3919.
  • 51
    Vizzard MA, Boyle MM. Increased expression of growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in lower urinary tract pathways following cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Brain Res 1999; 844: 17487.
  • 52
    Zhong Y, Banning AS, Cockayne DA, et al. Bladder and cutaneous sensory neurons of the rat express different functional P2X receptors. Neuroscience 2003; 120: 66775.
  • 53
    Yoshimura N, Seki S, Erickson KA, et al. Histological and electrical properties of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the lower urinary tract. J Neurosci 2003; 23: 435561.
  • 54
    Averill S, McMahon SB, Clary DO, et al. Immunocytochemical localization of trkA receptors in chemically identified subgroups of adult rat sensory neurons. Eur J Neurosci 1995; 7: 148494.
  • 55
    Andrade EL, Ferreira J, Andre E, et al. Contractile mechanisms coupled to TRPA1 receptor activation in rat urinary bladder. Biochem Pharmacol 2006; 72: 10414.
  • 56
    Avelino A, Cruz C, Nagy I, et al. Vanilloid receptor 1 expression in the rat urinary tract. Neuroscience 2002; 109: 78798.
  • 57
    Birder LA, Kanai AJ, de Groat WC, et al. Vanilloid receptor expression suggests a sensory role for urinary bladder epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98: 13396401.
  • 58
    Birder LA, Nakamura Y, Kiss S, et al. Altered urinary bladder function in mice lacking the vanilloid receptor TRPV1. Nat Neurosci 2002; 5: 85660.
  • 59
    Chuang YC, Fraser MO, Yu Y, et al. The role of bladder afferent pathways in bladder hyperactivity induced by the intravesical administration of nerve growth factor. J Urol 2001; 165: 9759.
  • 60
    Du S, Araki I, Yoshiyama M, et al. Transient receptor potential channel A1 involved in sensory transduction of rat urinary bladder through C-fiber pathway. Urology 2007; 70: 82631.
  • 61
    Lee HY, Bardini M, Burnstock G. Distribution of P2X receptors in the urinary bladder and the ureter of the rat. J Urol 2000; 163: 20027.
  • 62
    Nishiguchi J, Hayashi Y, Chancellor MB, et al. Detrusor overactivity induced by intravesical application of adenosine 5'-triphosphate under different delivery conditions in rats. Urology 2005; 66: 13327.
  • 63
    Ogawa T, Kamo I, Pflug BR, et al. Differential roles of peripheral and spinal endothelin receptors in the micturition reflex in rats. J Urol 2004; 172: 15337.
  • 64
    Pandita RK, Andersson KE. Intravesical adenosine triphosphate stimulates the micturition reflex in awake, freely moving rats. J Urol 2002; 168: 12304.
  • 65
    Pandita RK, Mizusawa H, Andersson KE. Intravesical oxyhemoglobin initiates bladder overactivity in conscious, normal rats. J Urol 2000; 164: 54550.
  • 66
    Rong W, Spyer KM, Burnstock G. Activation and sensitisation of low and high threshold afferent fibres mediated by P2X receptors in the mouse urinary bladder. J Physiol 2002; 541: 591600.
  • 67
    Studeny S, Torabi A, Vizzard MA. P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in postnatal and adult rat urinary bladder and lumbosacral spinal cord. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2005; 289: R115568.
  • 68
    Beckel JM, Kanai A, Lee SJ, et al. Expression of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat urinary bladder epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2006; 290: F10310.
  • 69
    Kullmann FA, Artim DE, Birder LA, et al. Activation of muscarinic receptors in rat bladder sensory pathways alters reflex bladder activity. J Neurosci 2008; 28: 197787.
  • 70
    Masuda H, Kim JH, Kihara K, et al. Inhibitory roles of peripheral nitrergic mechanisms in capsaicin-induced detrusor overactivity in the rat. BJU Int 2007; 100: 9128.
  • 71
    Ozawa H, Chancellor MB, Jung SY, et al. Effect of intravesical nitric oxide therapy on cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. J Urol 1999; 162: 22116.
  • 72
    Birder LA, de Groat WC. Mechanisms of disease: Involvement of the urothelium in bladder dysfunction. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2007; 4: 4654.
  • 73
    Häbler HJ, Jänig W, Koltzenburg M. Activation of unmyelinated afferent fibres by mechanical stimuli and inflammation of the urinary bladder in the cat. J Physiol 1990; 425: 54562.
  • 74
    Bahns E, Ernsberger U, Janig W, et al. Functional characteristics of lumbar visceral afferent fibres from the urinary bladder and the urethra in the cat. Pflugers Arch 1986; 407: 5108.
  • 75
    Morrison J, Wen J, Kibble A. Activation of pelvic afferent nerves from the rat bladder during filling. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 1999; 201: 735.
  • 76
    Sengupta JN, Gebhart GF. Mechanosensitive properties of pelvic nerve afferent fibers innervating the urinary bladder of the rat. J Neurophysiol 1994; 72: 242030.
  • 77
    Shea VK, Cai R, Crepps B, et al. Sensory fibers of the pelvic nerve innervating the rat's urinary bladder. J Neurophysiol 2000; 84: 192433.
  • 78
    Chuang YC, Fraser MO, Yu Y, et al. Analysis of the afferent limb of the vesicovascular reflex using neurotoxins, resiniferatoxin and capsaicin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2001; 281: R130210.
  • 79
    Maggi CA, Giuliani S, Conte B, et al. Prostanoids modulate reflex micturition by acting though capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Eur J Pharmacol 1988; 145: 10512.
  • 80
    Yu Y, Fraser MO, de Groat WC. Effects of ZD6169, a KATP channel opener, on neurally-mediated plasma extravasation in the rat urinary bladder induced by chemical or electrical stimulation of nerves. Brain Res 2004; 996: 416.
  • 81
    Yoshimura N, Seki S, de Groat WC. Nitric oxide modulates Ca2+ channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating rat urinary bladder. J Neurophysiol 2001; 86: 30411.
  • 82
    Black JA, Cummins TR, Yoshimura N, et al. Tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels Nav1.8/SNS and Nav1.9/NaN in afferent neurons innervating urinary bladder in control and spinal cord injured rats. Brain Res 2003; 963: 1328.
  • 83
    Yoshimura N, de Groat WC. Plasticity of Na+ channels in afferent neurons innervating rat urinary bladder following spinal cord injury. J Physiol 1997; 503: 26976.
  • 84
    Yoshimura N, de Groat WC. Increased excitability of afferent neurons innervating rat urinary bladder after chronic bladder inflammation. J Neurosci 1999; 19: 464453.
  • 85
    Yoshimura N, Seki S, Novakovic SD, et al. The involvement of the tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel Na(v)1.8 (PN3/SNS) in a rat model of visceral pain. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 86906.
  • 86
    Yoshimura N, White G, Weight FF, et al. Patch-clamp recordings from subpopulations of autonomic and afferent neurons identified by axonal tracing techniques. J Auton Nerv Syst 1994; 49: 8592.
  • 87
    Yoshimura N, White G, Weight FF, et al. Different types of Na+ and A-type K+ currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the rat urinary bladder. J Physiol 1996; 494: 116.
  • 88
    de Groat WC, Nadelhaft I, Milne RJ, et al. Organization of the sacral parasympathetic reflex pathways to the urinary bladder and large intestine. J Auton Nerv Syst 1981; 3: 13560.
  • 89
    de Groat WC, Roppolo JR, Yoshimura N, et al. Neural control of the urinary bladder and colon. In: TachéY, WingateD, BurksT, editors. Proceedings of the second international symposium on brain-gut interaction. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1993. p. 16790.
  • 90
    de Groat WC, Yoshimura N. Mechanisms underlying the recovery of lower urinary tract function following spinal cord injury. Prog Brain Res 2006; 152: 5984.
  • 91
    Cheng CL, Liu JC, Chang SY, et al. Effect of capsaicin on the micturition reflex in normal and chronic spinal cord-injured cats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 1999; 277: R78694.
  • 92
    de Groat WC, Kawatani M, Hisamitsu T, et al. Mechanisms underlying the recovery of urinary bladder function following spinal cord injury. J Auton Nerv Syst 1990; 30: S717.
  • 93
    Fall M, Lindström S, Mazieres L. A bladder-to-bladder cooling reflex in the cat. J Physiol 1990; 427: 281300.
  • 94
    Geirsson G, Lindstrom S, Fall M, et al. Positive bladder cooling test in neurologically normal young children. J Urol 1994; 151: 4468.
  • 95
    Stein RJ, Santos S, Nagatomi J, et al. Cool (TRPM8) and hot (TRPV1) receptors in the bladder and male genital tract. J Urol 2004; 172: 11758.
  • 96
    Geirsson G, Fall M, Sullivan L. Clinical and urodynamic effects of intravesical capsaicin treatment in patients with chronic traumatic spinal detrusor hyperreflexia. J Urol 1995; 154: 18259.
  • 97
    Jiang CH, Mazieres L, Lindstrom S. Cold- and menthol-sensitive C afferents of cat urinary bladder. J Physiol 2002; 543: 21120.
  • 98
    Mazieres L, Jiang C, Lindstrom S. The C fibre reflex of the cat urinary bladder. J Physiol 1998; 513: 53141.
  • 99
    Cheng CL, Chai CY, de Groat WC. Detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia induced by cold stimulation of the urinary bladder of rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integ Comp Physiol 1997; 41: R127182.
  • 100
    Apostolidis A, Popat R, Yiangou Y, et al. Decreased sensory receptors P2X3 and TRPV1 in suburothelial nerve fibers following intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin for human detrusor overactivity. J Urol 2005; 174: 97782.
  • 101
    Brady CM, Apostolidis A, Yiangou Y, et al. P2X3-immunoreactive nerve fibres in neurogenic detrusor overactivity and the effect of intravesical resiniferatoxin. Eur Urol 2004; 46: 24753.
  • 102
    Brady CM, Apostolidis AN, Harper M, et al. Parallel changes in bladder suburothelial vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5 immunoreactivity in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity after intravesical resiniferatoxin treatment. BJU Int 2004; 93: 7706.
  • 103
    Apostolidis A, Brady CM, Yiangou Y, et al. Capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in urothelium of neurogenic human bladders and effect of intravesical resiniferatoxin. Urology 2005; 65: 4005.
  • 104
    Apostolidis A, Fowler CJ. The use of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) in urology. J Neural Transm 2008; 115: 593605.
  • 105
    Popat R, Apostolidis A, Kalsi V, et al. A comparison between the response of patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity and neurogenic detrusor overactivity to the first intradetrusor injection of botulinum-A toxin. J Urol 2005; 174: 9849.
  • 106
    Schurch B, Denys P, Kozma CM, et al. Botulinum toxin A improves the quality of life of patients with neurogenic urinary incontinence. Eur Urol 2007; 52: 8508.
  • 107
    Morgan CW, Ohara PT, Scott DE. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in sacral primary sensory pathways in the cat. J Comp Neurol 1999; 407: 38194.
  • 108
    Thor K, Kawatani M, de Groat WC. Plasticity in the reflex pathways to the lower urinary tract of the cat during postnatal development and following spinal cord injury. In: GoldbergerME, GorioA, MurrayM, editors. Development and plasticity of the mammalian spinal cord. Padova, Italy: Liviana Press; 1986. p. 6580.
  • 109
    Kruse MN, Bray LA, de Groat WC. Influence of spinal cord injury on the morphology of bladder afferent and efferent neurons. J Auton Nerv Syst 1995; 54: 21524.
  • 110
    Zvarova K, Dunleavy JD, Vizzard MA. Changes in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide expression in urinary bladder pathways after spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol 2005; 192: 4659.
  • 111
    Weaver LC, Marsh DR, Gris D, et al. Autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury: Central mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Prog Brain Res 2006; 152: 24563.
  • 112
    Zinck ND, Rafuse VF, Downie JW. Sprouting of CGRP primary afferents in lumbosacral spinal cord precedes emergence of bladder activity after spinal injury. Exp Neurol 2007; 204: 77790.
  • 113
    Ishizuka O, Alm P, Larsson B, et al. Facilitatory effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on micturition in normal, conscious rats. Neuroscience 1995; 66: 100914.
  • 114
    Yoshiyama M, de Groat W. The role of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the neural pathways controlling the lower urinary tract. J Mol Neurosci 2008; 36: 22740.
  • 115
    Yoshiyama M, de Groat WC. Effects of intrathecal administration of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on lower urinary tract functions in rats with intact or transected spinal cords. Exp Neurol 2008; 211: 44955.
  • 116
    Zvara P, Braas KM, May V, et al. A role for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in detrusor hyperreflexia after spinal cord injury (SCI). Ann NY Acad Sci 2006; 1070: 6228.
  • 117
    Miura A, Kawatani M, de Groat WC. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on lumbosacral preganglionic neurons in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Brain Res 2001; 895: 22332.
  • 118
    Sculptoreanu A, Birder L, Buffington A, et al. Different mechanisms contribute to sensitization of C-fiber primary afferent neurons from cats with feline interstitial cystitis and spinal cord injury. J Urol 2003; 169: 40.
  • 119
    Steers WD. Pathophysiology of overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence. Rev Urol 2002; 4: S718.
  • 120
    Vizzard MA. Changes in urinary bladder neurotrophic factor mRNA and NGF protein following urinary bladder dysfunction. Exp Neurol 2000; 161: 27384.
  • 121
    Yoshimura N. Bladder afferent pathway and spinal cord injury: Possible mechanisms inducing hyperreflexia of the urinary bladder. Prog Neurobiol 1999; 57: 583606.
  • 122
    Satoshi S, Sasaki K, Igawa Y, et al. Detrusor overactivity induced by increased levels of nerve growth factor in bladder afferent pathways in rats. Neurourol Urodyn 2003; 22: 3757.
  • 123
    Steers WD, Kolbeck S, Creedon D, et al. Nerve growth factor in the urinary bladder of the adult regulates neuronal form and function. J Clin Invest 1991; 88: 170915.
  • 124
    Steers WD, Tuttle JB. Mechanisms of disease: The role of nerve growth factor in the pathophysiology of bladder disorders. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2006; 3: 10110.
  • 125
    Yoshimura N, Bennett NE, Hayashi Y, et al. Bladder overactivity and hyperexcitability of bladder afferent neurons after intrathecal delivery of nerve growth factor in rats. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 1084755.
  • 126
    Lamb K, Gebhart GF, Bielefeldt K. Increased nerve growth factor expression triggers bladder overactivity. J Pain 2004; 5: 1506.
  • 127
    Zvara P, Vizzard MA. Exogenous overexpression of nerve growth factor in the urinary bladder produces bladder overactivity and altered micturition circuitry in the lumbosacral spinal cord. BMC Physiol 2007; 7: 9.
  • 128
    Jongsma WH, Danielsen N, Johnston JM, et al. Exogenous NT-3 and NGF differentially modulate PACAP expression in adult sensory neurons, suggesting distinct roles in injury and inflammation. Eur J Neurosci 2001; 14: 26782.
  • 129
    Vizzard MA. Up-regulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in urinary bladder pathways after chronic cystitis. J Comp Neurol 2000; 420: 33548.
  • 130
    Seki S, Sasaki K, Fraser MO, et al. Immunoneutralization of nerve growth factor in lumbosacral spinal cord reduces bladder hyperreflexia in spinal cord injured rats. J Urol 2002; 168: 226974.
  • 131
    Seki S, Sasaki K, Igawa Y, et al. Suppression of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia by immunoneutralization of nerve growth factor in lumbosacral spinal cord in spinal cord injured rats. J Urol 2004; 171: 47882.
  • 132
    Cheng CL, Ma CP, de Groat WC. Effect of capsaicin on micturition and associated reflexes in chronic spinal rats. Brain Res 1995; 678: 408.
  • 133
    Giannantoni A, di Stasi SM, Nardicchi V, et al. Botulinum A toxin injection into the detrusor decrease nerve growth factor bladder tissue levels in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. J Urol 2006; 175: 23412.
  • 134
    Liu HT, Chancellor MB, Kuo HC. Urinary nerve growth factor levels are elevated in patients with detrusor overactivity and decreased in responders to detrusor botulinum toxin-A injection. Eur Urol 2008; 56: 7007.
  • 135
    Chai TC, Gray ML, Steers WD. The incidence of a positive ice water test in bladder outlet obstructed patients: Evidence for bladder neural plasticity. J Urol 1998; 160: 348.
  • 136
    Hirayama A, Fujimoto K, Matsumoto Y, et al. Positive response to ice water test associated with high-grade bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology 2003; 62: 90913.
  • 137
    Steers WD, Ciambotti J, Erdman S, et al. Morphological plasticity in efferent pathways to the urinary bladder of the rat following urethral obstruction. J Neurosci 1990; 10: 194351.
  • 138
    Steers WD, de Groat WC. Effect of bladder outlet obstruction on micturition reflex pathways in the rat. J Urol 1988; 140: 86471.
  • 139
    Steers WD, Creedon DJ, Tuttle JB. Immunity to nerve growth factor prevents afferent plasticity following urinary bladder hypertrophy. J Urol 1996; 155: 37985.
  • 140
    Liu HT, Kuo HC. Urinary nerve growth factor levels are increased in patients with bladder outlet obstruction with overactive bladder symptoms and reduced after successful medical treatment. Urology 2008; 72: 1048.
  • 141
    Miyazato M, Sasatomi K, Hiragata S, et al. GABA receptor activation in the lumbosacral spinal cord decreases detrusor overactivity in spinal cord injured rats. J Urol 2008; 179: 117883.
  • 142
    Steers WD, Meythaler JM, Haworth C, et al. Effects of acute bolus and chronic continuous intrathecal baclofen on genitourinary dysfunction due to spinal cord pathology. J Urol 1992; 148: 184955.
  • 143
    Miyazato A, Sugaya K, Ogawa Y, et al. Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase reduces detrusor overactivity in spinal cord injured rats. J Urol 2008; 179: 349.
  • 144
    Miyazato M, Sugaya K, Chancellor MB, et al. Suppression of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia by herpes simplex virus vector-mediated glutamic acid decarboxylase gene delivery in spinal cord injures rats. Neurourol Urodyn 2008; 27: 6034.