• atropine;
  • intravesical electrical stimulation;
  • in vitro;
  • rat;
  • tetrodotoxin;
  • whole bladder;
  • α,β-methylATP



In a previous study, we showed that the working mechanism of intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) is probably mainly nerve mediated. But even after bladder decentralization, IVES can induce detrusor contraction. This study explores the effect of IVES in decentralized bladders and the importance of receptors in the bladder wall for a response on IVES.


IVES (10 Hz square wave pulses, 20 msec pulse duration, 6 mA) was used in the bladder of 16 female Sprague–Dawley rats. After repeating IVES after consecutive bilateral bladder nerves section (L6-roots, pelvic nerves, and major pelvic ganglion (MPG)), the bladders were mounted in a tissue bath. IVES was performed in the control (n = 16), after administration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) (n = 6), after atropine and atropine with α,β-methylATP (n = 6), and after α,β-methylATP and α,β-methylATP with atropine (n = 4). The IVES-induced pressure rise (ΔP) was recorded.


Maximum ΔP (maxΔP) after transection of the MPG was significantly lower than after pelvic nerves transection. Treatment with TTX and with α,β-methylATP plus atropine abolished ΔP. Atropine alone gave an insignificant decrease of maxΔP. Treatment with α,β-methylATP alone reduced maxΔP significantly.


IVES can evoke contractions in a decentralized bladder. IVES-induced contractions are not a result of direct muscle stimulation, but are nerve mediated, involving intramural innervation and several parts of the bladder innervation. IVES-evoked contraction can be divided in a, contraction duration determining, cholinergic part and a, contraction strength determining, purinergic part. The peripheral innervation could play a role in IVES treatment in patients with interrupted central reflex pathway. Neurourol. Urodynam. 30:158–162, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.