Mickey Karram led the peer-review process as the Associate Editor responsible for the paper.
Original Basic Science Article
Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neurourology and Urodynamics
Volume 32, Issue 4, pages 341–348, April 2013
How to Cite
Voorham-van der Zalm, P. J., Voorham, J. C., van den Bos, T. W.L., Ouwerkerk, T. J., Putter, H., Wasser, M. N.J.M., Webb, A., DeRuiter, M. C. and Pelger, R. C.M. (2013), Reliability and differentiation of pelvic floor muscle electromyography measurements in healthy volunteers using a new device: The multiple array probe leiden (MAPLe). Neurourol. Urodyn., 32: 341–348. doi: 10.1002/nau.22311
Conflict of interest: Petra J.Voorham- van der Zalm, Theo J.Ouwerkerk and Rob C.M.Pelger are the inventors of the MAPLe.
Petra J. Voorham-van der Zalm and Jeroen C.Voorham shared first authorship.
Marco C. DeRuiter and Rob C.M. Pelger shared last authorship.
- Issue published online: 15 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 2 APR 2012
- National Scientific Research Organization (NWO)
- medical device;
- pelvic floor
A new multiple electrode probe, the Multiple Array Probe Leiden (MAPLe), has been developed for biofeedback registration of the individual pelvic floor musculature (PFM). The aim was to determine the reliability and differentiation of electromyography (EMG) signals measured with the MAPLe in healthy volunteers.
Two hundred twenty nine healthy volunteers not seeking treatment or using medication for symptoms of prolapse, lower urinary tract, bowel, pain, and/or sexual function related to pelvic floor dysfunction were qualified to participate. Subjects were asked to perform five tasks: rest, maximum voluntary contractions, endurance, cough, and valsalva. Mean EMG values per electrode were registered. Test–retest reliability was assessed using linear mixed model with random subject effects. One-way ANOVA tests were performed to detect differences between groups.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that each of the electrodes could be related nearest to the individual muscles. For test-retest, the intraclass correlation ranged from 0.53 to 0.91. The MAPLe showed significant differences in average EMG values between men and women, and between nulliparous and parous, pre- and prostmenpausal women. Significant differences were seen between the left and right sides of the pelvic floor. In addition, the activity nearest to the individual pelvic floor muscles (external anal sphincter (EAS), puborectalis muscle, bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus and the pubococcygeus muscle) could be determined.
The MAPLe is a reliable instrument measuring the EMG signals of the different sides and levels nearest to the pelvic floor musculature and is capable to differentiate between men and women, nulliparous, parous, pre- and postmenopausal. The findings of this study have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in the future. Neurourol. Urodynam. 32: 341–348, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.